|Other Languages||Albanian Arvanitika, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Circassian, Ladino, Romany, Venetian, Vlach, Xliponian, Yevanic, Yiddish|
|State Religion||Greek Orthodoxy|
|Other religions||Armenian Apostolic Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Catholicism (both Byzantine and Latin Rite)|
|Capital|| Athens (administrative)|
|Prime Minister||David Galanis|
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy|
|Independence||1863 (From Ottoman Empire)|
|Currency|| Mina; 1 mina = 80 drachmae = 480 oboloi|
1 Mina = £2 European
Early Modern History
Greece first gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1863. At the time, it consisted only of the Peloponnesus. The first monarch of an independant Greece was King George I, son of Archking Christian IX of the Scandinavian Realm. The coronation gift from Scotland consisted of several prominent pieces of the collection of Lord Elgin's Marbles. Most Greeks remained under the Ottoman Empire at the time. Greece longed to unite all Greeks-speakers under one nation, and so, during Great War II, longing to take Constantinople from the Ottomans, they sided with Germany. At the height of Greek power during GWII, Greek holdings included not just Constantinople, but also a large area surrounding modern-day Istanbul and large portions of the Aegean coastline of Turkey, which were ruled as a puppet "Kingdom of Cappodocia", which, in a staged referendum, voted for union with Greece in 1945. Greece also controlled parts of Cyprus, and set up a "Regency for the Kingdom of Cyprus". When the German- Russian alliance fell apart, Greece reluctantly sided with Germany. A separate peace treaty was signed with the Western allies in 1947, in which Greece returned the parts of Cyprus that it held and much of Anatolia. Shortly afterwards, a civil war broke out, the catalyst being anger over losing Greek gains. After a bloody civil war, a pro-SNOR Orthodox faction took over. Greece remained an ally of Russia, opposed to the CSDS, except during periods of brief anti-SNOR regimes.
Post-Great War History
Greece has had uneasy relations with her neighbors, coveting land that had been Greek in the past. There have particularly been problems with Turkey over Istanbul ("East Constantinople") and Greek-inhabited areas (there were no population exchanges *there*). The Great Idea remained an element in foreign policy, sometimes dormant, sometimes dominant. This lead, in the 1970's, to the ruling junta supporting a coup in Cyprus, putting a pro-Greek party in power, which staged a phony referendum calling for unification with Greece. Upon the declaration of this unification, the Commonwealth of Nations and Turkey participated in an allied invasion of Cyprus, forcing the Greeks to leave. Turkey also took the opportunity to push the Greeks out of Anatolia. After this disastrous foreign adventure, the ruling regime was ousted in another coup.
The Theodopoulos Coup
In the year 2000, a coup d'état lead by a revolutionary named Paul Theodopoulos overthrew the military goverment and their puppet King Constantine II (XIII). Their leader was declared King Paul II the following year in 2002, promising to bring about greater democracy. King Paul has undertaken a number of reforms. Shortly after crowning himself, he promulgated a new constitution, establishing greater freedoms and universal suffrage, in addition to religious freedoms (though Greek Orthodoxy remains state-supported). King Paul has declared a desire to improve Greece's foreign relations, and, in 2003, as part of this goal, formally apologized to Cyprus for participating in overthrowing their government in the 70's, and re-establishing normal diplomatic relations with Cyprus, Turkey, and the Commonwealth. In order to improve trade with the rest of Europe, he reformed the currency, re-establishing the mina as a monetary unit, setting it equal to the European pound, and redefining its divisions as 80 drachmae instead of the traditional 100 drachmae (thus, making the drachma equal to 3 European pence, and the obol equal to ½ penny)
But amidst the reforms, real and cosmetic, taking place in the aftermath of the coup a new sense of nationalism swept Greece, among other things giving rise to the Imperialist Party, which demanded a return to the glories of Greece under Alexander, Athens and Byzantium. The government, still retaining at least the forms of representative democracy, found these tendencies a movement that needed placating.
Succession and RevolutionAlexandra, Duchess of Sparta was viewed as unacceptable by many. General strikes crippled whole cities. Petitions to abolish the monarchy or disinherit Alexandra were circulated, even among military units and their officers. The compromise that followed was for Alexandra to wed one of the most popular rising stars of the Imperialist Party, then-heir-apparant Kostas Palaiologos. The two would then reign jointly as King and Queen of the Hellenes.
General rejoicing was the response to news of the wedding, which took place within weeks of King Paul's passing in June, 2008. It coincided with the formation of a coalition government wherein the Imperialist Party were full partners.
Yet another crisis arose by the end of July. As the Imperialists insisted on their own policies (or "genuine reform" as they dubbed them), a Vote of No Confidence was held in the legislature which the government lost. A new general election was called and a short but fierce election campaign gave a resounding victory to the new Prime Minister David Galanis of the Imperialists.
One of his first declarations was an end to the "Kingdom of the Hellenes" and the beginning of a new "Hellenic Empire." King Constantine XIII was proclaimed Emperor Constantine XII (in keeping with Byzantine numbering of monarchs). Likewise Galanis declared the government would be submitting a new constitution to the electorate within a year for their approval.
- 1 Obol (½d European)
- 2 Oboloi (Diobol; 1d European)
- 1 Drachma (3d)
- 2 Drachmae (Didrachm; 6d)
- 4 Drachmae (Tetradrachm; 1/-)
- 10 Drachmae (2/6)
- 20 Drachmae (5/-)
- 40 Drachmae (10/-)
- 5 Mina
- ¼ Talent (15 mina)
- ½ Talent (30 mina)
- Talent (60 mina)
- 5 Talents (300 mina)
- 10 Talents (600 mina)
- 20 Talents (1200 mina)
Arms of the Kingdom
Coat of Arms
Though one might say Eastern Orthodoxy is even stronger in IB Greece, less of the population is actually Eastern Orthodox. With there being a much stronger Jewish population *there* and a ew-Age movement combining elements of Orthodox with Buddhism, only 90% of Greece belongs to the Eastern Orthodox Church (as opposed to 97% *here*). Recently, after the ban being lifted on Muslims in Greece, Greek Muslims exiled after GWII and now Muslim immigrants have begun to pour in, holding as of now, .7% of the population.
Judaism in Greece
Judaism in Greece has had a long history. Judaism arrived six-hundred years before Christianity. When the rest of Western Europe began expelling Jews, they settled in Ottoman Greece, mostly in Thessaloniki. With no Holocaust, Thessaloniki's Jewish population rose to 60-65% of the city.
As of July 2009 all religions are government sanctioned; it was found unconstitutional to ban certain religions.
|Attiki | Thessaloniki | Central Greece | West Makedonia | Krētē | Adrianople | Rhodos| Kırklareli | Constantinople | Central Greece | Central Macedonia | East Makedonia and Thrakē | Ípiros | The Ioanian Islands | North Aegean | Peloponnesos | South Aegean | West Greece|
|GRE | Makedonia|
|Realm Capital Territories|
|Athena | Constantinople ||