Albania

From IBWiki

Jump to: navigation, search
Republlika Shqipërisë
Republic of Albania
Conventional short name:
Local: Shqipëria
English: Albania
Ste flag of Albania
Languages:  
 Official: Albanian
 Others: (in most-to-less order of # of speakers) Sicilian, Greek, Dalmatian, Vlach/Aromanian, Xliponian, Bulgarian, Turkish, Ladino (Judezmo), Romani
Cities:  
 Capital: Tirana
 Other: Durrësi, Vlora, Korça, Kiçevë, Prizreni
President: Sali Berisha
Population: 7,443,632
Independence: from Turkey
 Date: August, 1894
Currency: Lek = 9 lepta = 81 penia

Contents

History

Albania gained independence from Turkey in August 1894, after the Albanians took inspiration from the Hungarians, Bulgarians, Dalmatians and others who rose up against the Ottoman Empire. The Albanians, however, were aided by troops from the Two Sicilies, who saw this as an opportunity to gain a foothold on the Balkans, and not least, to gain access to the newly-discovered and newly-exploited coal, chromium and oil mines. In the following month, September 1894, Albania was proclaimed a protectorate of the Two Sicilies. This was the beginning of several waves of Muslims out of Albania and into the safety of the Ottoman Empire.

During the First Great War, Albania was used as a start-off point for the Duesicilian armies in their fights against Montenegro and Turkey, who still held onto Macedonia and Thrace.

Albania remained a protectorate of the Two Sicilies through the Second Great War and Albanian troops fought in all-Albanian units (though commanded by Sicilian officers) alongside Sicilian forces.

After the Second Great War, Albania is granted independence by the Two Sicilies for reasons not yet clear. There is a brief civil war, at the end of which Jashar Zogu is crowned King Zog in 1948, despite the efforts of the newly communist Confederation of Soviet Danubian States to achieve a communist victory. The communist movement was far too small in Albania to win, even with what (little) help the CSDS could give.

The Kingdom of Albania then pursued a very anti-communist policy, outlawing the Communist Party and executing its leader and most prominent figure, Enver Sejid (انور سيد), in 1955. During this time agents of the CSDS's intelligence agency, Direktorija 3 (D3) are insinuated into Albania in an attempt to overthrow King Zog and to apply other forms of internal pressure on the monarchy, spreading discontent throughout the country. Internal dissent mounts, aided by the country's poor economic situation (this despite the fact that it is Europe's largest chromium producer), until finally the pressure is so great that elections are held in June 1960.

The elections of 1960 were a landslide victory for the New Albania Party (Partia e Shqipërisë e Re), a centrist party who try to put the new Republic of Albania on a more neutral course. The C.S.D.S. welcomed this development (superficially at least), but D3 operations continued inside Albania, though to a lesser extent. After the new government passes several laws which the C.S.D.S. disliked, the D3 began another campaign of subversion inside Albania, which resulted in the government scrapping the "questionable" laws. After this point Albania ceased to pursue an independent foreign policy, rather it echoed CSDS policies. In 1964 a new election was scheduled, which lead to a 99.3% victory for the PSR amid opposition protests of ballot-box stuffing and other irregularities. Riots broke out and martial law was declared. The military took power in that year.

After the fall of the CSDS and the Great Balkan War, Albania's military junta made overtures to the new Republic of Dalmatia about joining Dalmatia in some form of confederation. Dalmatia refused this, but friendly relations formed between the two countries. After the successful Islamic revolution in Sanjak in May 1991, the radical elements of the Albanian Muslim community tried to establish an Islamic republic in Albania as well, aided by a small number of mostly Turkish and Saudi Mujahideen and money. The attempted revolution failed for several reasons. Firstly, Albania was already far too secular and had been for the better part of the 20th Century. Secondly, the Albanian Christian community, both Orthodox Christians and Catholics, fought back hard against the fundamentalist Muslims, aided by Castile, Dalmatia and Greece to a lesser extent, the former of which had by this time come to view itself as Europe's main line of defence against Islam.

Albania continues to have good relations with Dalmatia and nearby Greece.

Geography

Religion

Albania (tentative) Population in 2018: 7,443,632

  • Christian (85%): 6,327,088
    • Orthodox Christian (54%): 3,416,628
    • Catholic (43.75%): 2,768,100
      • Latin Rite (84%): 2,325,204
      • Byzantine Rite (16%): 442,896 (almost all Eastern Catholics in Albania are descended from Arbereshe colonists sent by The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies following Ottoman decolonization and subsequent Sicilian recolonization in the 20th Century. The Arbereshe were chosen by Naples for this endeavor because as Albanian-speakers [some even monolinguals] and Catholics loyal to the state, they might be the shock-troops in the subjugation of Albania as part of Sicily's civilizing mission. To this day, the Uniates of Albania skew more Italophile and cosmopolitan than the ardently nationalist Latin rite Catholics in the country's far north. Some Greek Catholics of Albania are also the descendants of converts from Orthodox Christianity as the Catholic Church took a bigger interest in the region after the Ottoman conquest. Offers of free education by Catholic monastics and material aid kept conversion to Islam at bay somewhat.)
    • Protestant (2.22%): 140,462
    • Oriental Orthodox (.03%): 1,898
  • Muslim (8.22%): 611,868
    • Bektashi (independent) (34%): 208,036
    • Sunni (32%): 195,798
      • Hanafi (non-Sufi) (79%): 154,680
      • Other Sufi (Hanafi, other madhhab) (21%): 41,118
    • Nondenominational (28%): 171,322
    • Cerrahi Order (Shia, Athnā‘ashari/İsnâaşeriyye) (6%): 36,712
  • Not religious (6.22%): 462,994
  • Jewish (.06%): 4,290
  • Other/declined to answer (.5%): 37,218

Borders

North: Dalmatia. West: Mediterranean Sea. South: Xliponia, Greece East: Bulgaria. [1]

Personal tools
discussion