|Conventional short name:|
|English:||Turkey ("Türkiye," rarely)|
|Others:||Sandžacki, Albanian, Hungarian, Syriac, Cilician (Armenian), Greek, Judeo-Arabic, Aragonese, Italian, Anatolian Kurmanji and Zaza (Kurdish)|
|Other:||İstanbul, İzmir, Adana, Antalya, Urfa, Ankara|
|State Religions:||Sunni Islam|
|Other Religions:||Shi'ite Islam (Twelver, Alevi), various denominations of Judaism, Oriental Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Catholic Church, Assyrian Church of the East|
|Currency:||1 Lira=100 Kuruş=40 para|
|Organizations:||Silk Road League|
Turkey is a monarchy.
Owing to the 16th Century [A.D.] victories of Mohammed Zahir-un-din, also known as Babur, against the Narsids, the changes to the Ottoman dynasty and polity were remarkably imperceptible -- until the year 1835 [A.D.], when the reigning sultan died of an abrupt heart attack. His successor was his son Murad.
Murad, upon taking the throne, did all he could to keep his country solvent. However, this involved tightening control over the Middle East and the Balkans, which sowed the seeds for rebellion. In the 1840s, Sultan Murad received emissaries from the Baburids to the east, proposing a holy war against the Safavid Persians. However, Murad, like his son and grandson would be, was too busy quelling insurrections in the Ottoman Realm for taking part in a holy war.
Albania gained independence from Turkey in August 1894, after the Albanians took inspiration from the Hungarians (1869), Bulgarians (January 1893), Dalmatians (1890) and others who rose up against the Ottoman Empire. The Albanians, however, were aided by troops from the Two Sicilies, which goes a long way to explain the cold shoulder the Two Sicilies and Turkey give one another, diplomatically speaking.
In the wake of the Great War of 1914-1918, newly-crowned Sultan Ibrahim moved the capital to the more secure location of Gordion (غورديوم), home of the legendary King Midas.
In 1920, Sultan Ibrahim instituted the Language Reform, which purged Turkey’s Osmanlica alphabet of Persian characters. Facing rebellion in the same year, he ordered a forced march of all Kurds and Armenians to the nations of their co-nationals to the east. The Syrian citizens, however, he gave the option of staying in Turkey.
Among the formerly Ottoman countries which have maintained at least warm, if not particularly close, relations with Turkey, are Sanjak and Bulgaria. The other successor states are fairly hostile to Turkey.
On 5 May, 1991, the Anatolian Kingdom of Turkey supported an Islamic Revolution in Sanjak, and shortly afterwards, attempted a second one in Albania - though the second one failed.
- Official written language: Osmanlica (which is Arabic script, with characters added to handle Turkish and Persian sounds not present in Arabic).
- Other written languages: Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac
- Official coinage: piastre
- Other coinages: dinar, xenar, kuna, riyal, leva, leu, lek, new ruble,
- State sport: cirit
- Other sports: Oil wrestling,
|Azerbaijan | Mongolia | Moghul National Realm | Turkestan | Turkey | Uyguristan|
|Altai | Bashkortostan | Buryatia | Chuvashia | Kalmykia | Khakassia | Qazaqstan | Tannu-Tuva | Tatarstan | Yakutia|