Prime Minister of Iraaq
The Prime Minister of Iraaq is Iraaq’s head of government. Originally it was an appointed office subsidiary to Iraaq’s head of state selected among his men of trust. In the past (1935 to 1939 and since 1958 to 2003) the prime minister was also the nominal leader of the parliament.
Since 2004 the Prime Minister of Iraaq remains an appointed office. According to the Constitution of 2004 the President of Iraaq appoints the leader of the most voted political party on legislative elections within two weeks. If the most voted party doesn’t have enough representatives to support a stable rule the president might appoint the leader of a smaller party as long it’s colligated to parties having enough number of representatives supporting his rule.
According to the Constitution of 2004 (which turned Iraaq into a parliamentary democratic republic) the Prime Minister of Iraaq is no longer leader of parliament, in order to separate the executive from legislative powers and to avoid too much power concentration into a single person. Nowadays Prime Minister of Iraaq is appointed for a four year term, same as national parliament.
List of Prime Minister of Iraaq
Hashemite Kingdom of Iraaq
First absolute monarchy
- Prince Ibrahim bin Hussayn , first time (born 1886, died 1958). (entered office 1921, left office 1935): King Faisal I’s younger brother. Together with the king they were able to pacify Iraaq after the country was given by the Federated Kingdoms to Faisal I of the Hijaaz.
Ibrahim bin Hussayn acted brutally to control Iraaq and pacification was achieved after oil being discovered (1927) and local Sunni leaders’ loyalty was bought with oil concessions. Ibrahim bin Hussayn and his brother King Faisal I acted as kleptocrats using iraaqi oil revenues to their own profit so as for financing Hijaaz’s weak economy. Strongly allied with FK interests in the Middle East.
After Faisal I death Ibrahim bin Hussayn was kept as prime minister by the new king, Ghazi I, but their difficult relation made the king to replace him.
- General Sayyad Rashid Ali el-Keilany (born 1892, died 1939-deposed) (entered office 1935, left office 1939): el-Keilany was a prominent Sunni warlord during the Iraaqi Civil War (1920-27). By nowadays standards he could easily be considered as a war criminal due to his persecutions against the Shiites and non-Arab minorities. He was responsible for the Christmas’ Eve Disaster or Tikrit Massacre when over 1000 kemrese soldiers were killed.
Knowing his military capabilities new king Ghazi I made him general and in a continuous act of defiance against FK appointed him as prime minister in 1935 becoming the first iraaqi born head of government. Together they established a SNORist-like regime in Iraaq that year. For the next four years they brought Iraaq to modern political world by establishing a constitutional monarchy with single party system, the use of propaganda and large public works in order to get common iraaqi people support.
On the 4th April 1939 the king died in mysterious circumstances and iraaqi snorists appointed el-Keilany as regent of Iraaq. Ibrahim bin Hussayn triggered then a coup d’etat eleven days later on which all iraaqi snorist leadership was captured and executed.
Second absolute monarchy
- Prince Taha al-Hashim, first time (born 1888, died 1958) (entered office 1939, left office 1944): Ibrahim bin Hussayn became new regent of both the Hijaaz and Iraaq as King Faisal II was just four years old. One of the Ibrahim bin Hussayn’s half brothers Taha al-Hashim was appointed new prime minister. This was the first of a series of more or less weak prime ministers during Ibrahim’s regency. Such prime ministers were often replaced in order to avoid any of them to create a web of influences which could threat Ibrahim power.
During Taha al-Hashim rule Iraaq returned to FK sympathy although kept away from the Great Wars. It was Allied Powers sympathetic neutrality. Communist and snorist rebellions were primary domestic issues and they were defeated during his term. Taha defended larger rights to Shiite majority in order to get their support to the Hashemite rule. The regent didn’t share this vision (he simply preferred to keep Shiite under iron fist) and forced him to resign. Later he was executed during the 14th July 1958 coup.
- Jamil al-Midfai (born 1890, died 1958) (entered office 1944, left office 1946): replacement for al-Hashim and second iraaqi-born prime minister since independence. Being Iraaq neutral to Great Wars he intended to sell oil to all parts in conflict in order to get the higher profits. Such disliked the regent who was supporter to FK. After a petition from English government al-Midfai was forced to resign by the regent.
- Prince Taha al-Hashim, second time (entered office 1946, left office 1947): distrusting iraaqi born politicians the regent called back Taha al-Hashim for prime minister. This time al-Hashim gave up his pretensions for larger rights to Shiia majority. But soon entered in disagree for the way Ibraham bin Hussayn dealed with the country. Resigned just one year later.
- Tawfiq al-Suwaidi (born 1892, died 1968) (entered office 1947, left office 1951): former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Faisal I, former iraaqi ambassador at the League of Nations and several times minister on different offices under al-Hashim and al-Midfai governments. Was appointed prime minister and worked hard for certain reconciliation between the Hashemite and the Saudi. Such made possible the Hashemite kingdoms and Saudi Arabia to be partners at the Arab Community (1949) and COPEN (1951). Despite being one of the greatest iraaqi politicians he was removed from office due to suspicions of pan-arabist sympathies.
- Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali (born 1903, died 1997) (entered office 1951, left office 1953): his appointment was finally an attempt by the regent to catch sympathy from Shiia majority. First Shiite to become prime minister and he is mostly just remembered for that.
- Prince Ibrahim bin Hussayn, second time (entered office 1953, left office 1958-deposed): in 1953 King Faisal II came of age and replaced al-Jamali. Ibrahim bin Hussayn kept his strong influence over the king so as kept his usual brutal methods to keep Iraaq under control. Such granted the height of Hashemite unpopularity among iraaqis. On the 14th July 1958 a bloody coup lead by General Abdul Karim Qassim deposed Hashemite rule over Iraaq. As result all Hashemite living in Iraaq, including the King Faisal II and the queen, Prime Minister Ibrahim and former prime minister Taha al-Hashim among others) were executed.
- Ahmed Aziz (born 1897, died 1971) (entered office 1958, left office 1963): Hussayn I, new Hashemite king, appointed him as prime minister in exile. Having no real power over Iraaq due to deposition of the Hashemite by General Qassim Aziz was just a figurehead. Aziz considered the king to be too interventive over the Iraaqi Government in Exile own affairs and saw this as some kind of an annexation of Iraaq by the Hijaaz. Considering also that Hussayn I’s claims over iraaqi throne were impossible to achieve he resigned and fled to exile in Egypt.
- Abdullah al-Sahaf (born 1910, died 1977). (entered office 1963, left office 1968): second prime minister in exile even more figurehead than previous. Saw Hashemite claims pulverized by progressive international recognition of Iraaq under General Qassim rule until claims were abandoned and government in exile was disestablished in 1968.
Kingdom of Iraaq
- General Abdul Karim Qassim (born 1914, died 1979) (entered office 1958, left office 1968): Qassim became new prime minister following the overthrow of the Hashemite. He also self-appointed as regent while looked for a candidate for a national born king. Qassim instituted a full scale program of reforms financed by oil wealth turning the country to a communist-like regime, focused on Arab unity and aimed Iraaq to become leading Arab Nation country, the largest oil producer in the world so as an industrialized country.
In 1968 he gave up his search for a king of Iraaq and became the first president after a plebiscite at a time iraaqis were having the highest standard of living they ever had.
Iraaqi Arab Republic
- General Abd as-Salam al-Jumaili (born 1921, died 1979) (entered office 1968, left office 1972): one of the major officers who participated at the 14th July coup. Followed Qassim’s policies but by 1971 he adverted the president that high oil productivity could cause a massive price downfall. Qassim dismissed him for this and since then just kept presence at national parliament as representative. Later he was executed when theocracy was instituted.
- Sa’dun Hammadi (born 1930, died 2007) (entered office 1972, left office 1975): second Shiite to become prime minister and former Minister of Oil Industry during Qassim term as prime minister. Had a difficult term since when oil prices felt dramatically in 1973. As he wasn’t able to revert crisis situation he finally resigned in 1975.
- Sheik Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (born 1914, died 2005) (entered office 1975, left office 1976), first time: Sunni scholar who became Minister of Religion during the early 1960’s. Later he was replaced by his relative Saddaam Hussayn, in 1972. Became prime minister in a time of economic crisis and having no solutions he resigned after less than one year he was appointed.
- Muhammad Amza az-Zubeidi (born 1938, died 1979) (entered office 1976, left office 1977): third Shiite to become prime minister. Still another weak and uninspired ruler who wasn’t able to find solutions against crisis. Resigned within less than a year in a time social unrest was growing.
- Sheik Saddaam Hussayn (born 1935) (entered office 1977, left office 1979), first time: minister of religion since 1972 seemed to President Qassim to be a loyal politician. Also one of the most popular men of the regime due to his radio speeches and newspaper articles. Appointed as prime minister in 1977 in a time that regime was losing popular support. Such appointment of a charismatic preacher was supposed to recover some of that lost support.
Hussayn, considering secretly Qassim was taking Iraaq to economic suicide, conspired and gathered a large number of radical Islamite who deposed the president and replaced communist like regime by theocracy in 1979.
Sheik Hussayn regime (theocracy)
- Sheik Ali Hassan al-Majid (born 1941) (entered office 1979, left office1982): appointed Prime Minister following the 1979 coup. Al-Majid. Created the religious police being responsible for persecuting the non-Muslim minorities and to make everyone accomplish the new official religious and moral points of view. Also ordered large purges in all levels of iraaqi society which caused thousands of dead. Strong supporter of the invasion against Persia, in 1980. By 1982 when Persia-Iraaq War came into stalemate he suggested Saddaam Hussayn to develop or at least to acquire nuclear bombs for decimating Persia. Such made him become known secretly as Sheik Ali the Nuke. As President Sheik Hussayn disagreed (he considered chemical weapons would be much easier to use so as cheaper) al-Majid resigned.
- Sheik Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, second time (entered office 1982, left office 1988), second time: only prime minister of previous regime who was able to be appointed to new religious regime. Followed aggressive rhetoric and acts against the Great Persian Satan until finally peace was achieved in 1988. Being against peace he resigned and abandoned political active life. Also used funds to support resistance against Snorist Russia invasion to the Moghul National Realm.
- Sheik Ahmed Hussayn Khudayir as-Samarrai (born 1941) (entered office 1988, left office 1994): Sunni scholar who openly supported Islamic revolutions in Sanjak and Albania. Also was one of the main responsible of the attack against the March Arabs which preceded the invasion of Kuwayt during the Gulf War. During the following rebellions by the Assyrians and the Basri he ordered extreme measures such as the wide use of chemical weapons against civilian unarmed population. Although the Assyrians were defeated the Basri didn’t. Such failure made the president to dismiss him.
- Sheik Saddaam Hussayn, second time (entered office 1994, left office 2003-deposed): in 1994 Sheik Hussayn concentrated both powers of president and prime minister pursuing his repressive policies against the Basri rebels. This long war, combined with international embargo to iraaqi imports and exports, caused widespread poverty with consequent social unrest. Also some circles of power so as among military tired of pointless wars started to consider removing Sheik Hussayn from power. Such finally happened in a bloodless coup on the 20th March 2003.
- Ayad Allawi (born 1945) (entered office 2003, left office 2004): Shiite chosen by the Interim Governing Council which came out from the 2003 coup. Interim prime minister that should remain in function until a democratic parliament would be elected. During his term a new constitution was drafted establishing the principles of the new democratic Iraaq.
During his term “de-theocracyfication” was implemented and collaborative to deposed theocratic regime were imprisoned for being later judged. Some of them were able to escape to Saudi Arabia and Tejas while others are still in hide leading armed rebellions of radical Islam inspiration. In order to stabilize Iraaq Allawi requested Arab foreign troops to the Arab Community during its 8th Emergency Summit held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
- Adnan Amin al-Pachachi (born 1923) (entered office 2004, left office2005): former iraaqi ambassador at LoN during the 1960’s became prime minister (the oldest one) as result of the first democratic elections ever made in Iraaq. Leader of the main party (National Party) of the National Union coalition followed same policies as Allawi. Widely used national silver reserves for paying war compensations to Persia, Kuwayt and Al-Basra causing dramatic iraaqi dinar devaluation. Just one year after appointment was forced to resign due to health reasons.
- Ayham al-Samarie (born 1951, died 2009) (entered office 2005, left office 2009-assassinated): successor to al-Pachachi both to National Party leadership so as prime minister. Took measures to stabilize weak iraaqi economy (such as forced exchange of foreign currencies for iraaqi dinars and peg the national currency to Thousand Emirates rial).
On legislative elections of 2008 National Union coalition once again won and al-Samarie was re-appointed as prime minister. On March 2009 a suicide bomber killed him during the celebration of the sixth anniversary of Saddaam Hussayn fall.
- Jawad Kamel al-Maliki (born 1950) (entered and left office 2009-acting): acting prime minister just for ten days. Leader of National Union second largest party, the Liberal Party of Iraaq.
- Sheik Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958) (entered office 2009): tribal leader of the Shammar tribe became new leader of the National Party and was appointed as new prime minister. Due being leader of a powerful tribe which also lives in Saudi Arabia and the Bedouin Free State is trying to use his influence for repatriation of some Sheik Hussayn’s regime war criminals.