The growth of modern Communism
In Russia, the 1917 October Revolution was the first time any party with an avowedly Marxist orientation, in this case the Bolshevik Party, obtained state power. The assumption of state power by the Bolsheviks generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx believed that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. Russia, however, was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Nevertheless, some socialists believed that a Russian revolution could be the precursor of workers' revolutions in the west.
The socialist Mensheviks opposed Lenin's communist Bolsheviks' plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks successful rise to power was based upon the slogans "peace, bread, and land" and "All power to the Soviets", slogans which tapped the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in the First Great War, the peasants' demand for land reform, and popular support for the Soviets.
The usage of the terms "communism" and "socialism" shifted after 1917, when the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and installed a single-party regime devoted to the implementation of socialist policies under Leninism. The revolutionary Bolsheviks broke completely with the non-revolutionary social democratic movement, withdrew from the Second International, and formed the Third International, or Comintern, in 1919. Henceforth, the term "Communism" was applied to the objective of the parties founded under the umbrella of the Comintern. Their program called for the uniting of workers of the world for revolution, which would be followed by the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat as well as the development of a socialist economy. Ultimately, their program held, there would develop a harmonious classless society, with the withering away of the state.
In 1918-1919, the victory of the White Army in the Russian Civil War forced the main body of the communist party to escape from Russia. Lenin and his followers escaped into eastern Europe, where they formed communist parties in the Danubian Confederation and assisted in the Bavarian revolution.
Trotsky and his followers, however, escaped into Siberia, and their platform became known as Trotskyism. Later, Siberia was overrun by SNORist, Japanese and Chinese forces, and was eventually reduced into the People's Republic of Chukotka.
Though some follow Trotsky's ideologies today, Trotsky's theories were never re-accepted in worldwide mainstream communist circles. Trotsky's interpretation of communism has only been successful in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Siberia and its successor states.
A small contingient of Leninists managed to escape from Moscow, and moved north into Leningrad (Petrograd) and Novgorod, briefly forming the Leningradian and Ladogian Soviet Republics, which later both fell to the SNOR. Ladogian Republic was later re-newed as a tool of new SNOR foreign politics.
After the collapse of the Soviet power in European Russia, the remnants of the Red Army and its leaders escaped into Nassland, with the intention to create an Exilé Committee for Renaissance /of Revolution/ (ECR). Their aim was to maintain contacts with Russian communistic underground, and plan revolution in the Nassian State. Unfortunatly for them, these plans were discovered by Nassian authorities early 1920; ECR was banned, and many of the exponents were arrested and later expelled. Most of them ended up in the Balkans, forming there communist forces, which in future will work for the Confederation of Soviet Danubian States.
Red forces also took control of Crimea. A Soviet Republic was firmly in place by 1919. At first the Tauridian Soviet Republic was led by an uneasy alliance of Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, and anarchists; but the Mensheviks soon gained the upper hand through their strong support in the workers' soviets in the cities. Menshevik Crimea became a hub for socialist activity in the tradition of the Second International. It attracted exiles from all parts of the Russian Empire and many Marxist visitors from the West.
In government, the Tauridian Soviet Republic divided power between a parliament and the Soviets. The parliament was multiparty in theory, but in practice the Mensheviks had a great advantage from their control of the Soviets, and they were the dominant party in parliament for most of the TSR's history. Frustrated liberals and conservatives started to take to the streets, putting much stress on the system; but what finally ended the Soviet Republic was invasion and occupation by Ukraine (1940), then Germany ('44), then Snorist Russia ('46).
Loyalists of the Soviet regime fled the country. A wartime government-in-exile was established in Italy and a force was organized to fight with the Allies. In the final stages of the Second Great War, a militant faction of this force set out to start a guerrilla campaign against the SNOR in Hungary. This band eventually retreated across the border and merged with the army of the CSDS. The remainder were welcomed into Bavaria, where they disbanded. The government-in-exile also relocated to Munich, which became the center of Menshevik exile activity for a number of years. The Menshevik Party was re-established in Crimea after the fall of Snorism and is one of the larger parties in the country today.
During the Second Great War, a civil war between communists and monarchists erupted in the Danubian Confederation, culminating in the victory of the former, thanks to the efforts of Josip Broz and the remnant old-guard from the Russian communist party.
Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Communist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base; they were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.
Each constituant part of the new Confederation of Soviet Danubian States was given autonomy, and, thanks to the efforts of Broz, managed a tenuous coexistance, in acordance with "Bratstvo in Jedinstvo", Slovenian for "Brotherhood and Unity" (in Dalmatian: "Froatreta e Yunitota"), which reflected Broz's enforced unity of the various ethnic groups (Dalmatian, Serb, Croat, Slovene, Bulgarian, Muslim Slav and Macedonian were the majorities, with small numbers of Albanians, Greeks, Muntenians, Hungarians, Germans and Italians).
After Broz's death however, the Croatian Nationalist, Fraňo Tuďman, became head of the Communist Party, and shattered all illusions of coexistance between the peoples of the Confederation. A civil war erupted soon afterward, culminating in the final dissolution of the CSDS.
Instead of going westward with Lenin, Trotsky and his followers escaped eastward from the SNOR. After arriving in Siberia, a Trotskyist government was established, occuping most of the Far East of Russia (the SSRS), allying with China. Following a war against Russia and China, the SSRS is partitioned, and ceases to exist.
Following the Russo-Chinese War (1934-1938), the Imperial Soviet Republic of Northern Manchuria (ISRNM) is declared in 1942, as a Chinese Protectorate. However, after the end of the Great Oriental War, the People's Republic of Chukotka was declared in 1949. It became a thorn in Russia's side until the collapse of the SNORist government there in 1991.
Other Communist States
Assisted in its overthrow of the Wittelsbach Dynasty following the First Great War by Leninists fleeing from the SNOR, the Soviet Republic of Bavaria was declared in 1919.
Although factions of the Bavarian Communist Party agitated for a pan-HRE revolution, the cooler heads won out. Despite attempts to remove them from power by pro-Monarchists and other right-wing groups, the communist governments, allied with several other left-wing groups managed to hold out.
However, during the 1920s and early 30s, the economic depression gripping the world forced the Bavarian Socialist League to institute various reforms, including a small mesure of democracy to the country, becoming more socialist than communist in nature.
Several Bavarian-sponsered groups assisted the communists in the Danubian Conferedation during their civil war.
The only former Dalmatian Colony to have any notable communist phase.
During the late-1940s, the CSDS attempted to introduce communist elements into the Dalmatian colonies. In 1948, Togo was proclaimed as the Togolese Soviet Republic, and a constituent state state of the CSDS. However, in 1958, due to administrative dificulties, the Togolese SR became a semi-autonomous area, and is granted independence in 1960. It ceases to be communist in 1963, following a coup by Nikola Grunitzky.
Declared the Togolese Socialist Republic in 1973, following a coup led by Maj Maceu Kereku, and later the People's Republic of Benin in 1975. It renounces communism for the last time in 1982, although it retains good ties with the CSDS.
Part of its territory declared itself independent as the People's Democratic Socialist Republic of Benin in 1985. On the 18th of May of that year, the Ewe State proclaimed its independence, it first fell to Togolese, then to Beninese control later that day. On the 22nd, the PDSR of Benin was crushed by Togolese, Gold Coast and Upper Nigervoltan forces and reintegrated with Togo.
Kurdistan became a communist state some time after the Second Great War, and currently the only one of its kind in the Near East.
Somewhat diferent to other communist states, Nea Illenicia seems to be more of a Christian Communist (Communalist) state, with heavy Ecotopian leanings.
In the 1920's, a man, inspired by the teachings of Marx, Lenin and Trotsky stepped to the political fore. Zeoduero Efeseyo developed a form of socialism that bordered on SNORism in its fanaticism to the Orthodox Church, but staunchly adhered to so many of Marx's tenets that it can only be considered Communism. This new political ideal is referred to as efeseyism. It is also different from regular communism in the ecological leanings. One should not compare the efeseyism to ecotopianism, as a Nea Illenician would decry the ecotopians capitulation to capitalist processes.
Hunan became a pseudo-Communist nation in 1969, following a coup by Wang Zhenli. Although quickly ousted, he was restored to power in 1978, declaring himself Emperor of Hunan and all China. Its imperialist policies, against Nanhango in 1980, and against Canton in 2003, only led to tragedy on his part. He was ousted in 2003 by Cantonese, who occupied the country (later transfered to Japanese occupation).
Short-lived Communist States
- Hungarian Soviet Republic - briefly existed on a territory of Felvidék (Slevania+Ruthenia), around Budapest and Miskolc between November 1917 and August 1919 (diplomatically unrecognised), following Hungary's defeat in the First Great War. It was brutally put down by loyal royalist forces. Inofficially, few Bohemian infantry divisions and lots of equipment helped exhausted royalists to finish the communistic revolution in Hungary.
- Leonina Soviet Republic - Formed by an alliance of Venedic People's Front and the Ruthenian Soviet Army in 1947, it was never recognised, and disolved itself in 1949.
- People's Republic of Slevania - It was the remnant of Hungarian Soviet Republic after Budapest was occupied. It lasted from August 1919 till July 1920 and again in late 1947-1949, when SNORist troops destroyed the communist government, and executed its leadership. The second incarnation was only recognised by other communist nations (notably Bavaria and Chukotka).
- Tannu People's Republic - Existed 1919-1921 when the Red Army occupied the Russian client state, the Uriankhai Republic. Annexed to Snorist Russia in 1921. Today its territory comprises the autonomous republic of Tannu-Tuva.
- Transcarpathian Soviet Republic - Declared in August 1919 when Hungarian Soviet Republic fell. Never recognised, and was destroyed by Hungarian royalists in mid 1920.
- Venedic Socialist Republic - Formed by various Venedic Communist factions in Greater Veneda in late GWII, the republic was only recognised by Bavaria and Chukotka. It fell appart due to infighting in 1948.
Notable Communist Countries
- Soviet Republic of Bavaria - Nominal only; socialist dominated rather than communist nation
- Nea Illenicia - Ecotopian Socialist
- People's Socialist Empire of Hunan - defunct; communist only in name
- Confederation of Soviet Danubian States - Defunct
Variants of Togo:
- Togolese Soviet Republic - Defunct; experimental constituant state of the CSDS
- Togolese Socialist Republic - Defunct
- People's Republic of Benin - Defunct
- People's Democratic Socialist Republic of Benin - Defunct; seperatist movement
Russian SFSR successor states:
- Tauridian Soviet Republic - Defunct
A Bolshevik Stalemate is sometimes called a Mexican Standoff by Tejans and Alta Californians. It refers to the fact that the Communist party suffered a fracture between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, and later between Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky. A Bolshevik Stalemate is often viewed as a precursor to mutual destruction, as was the case with the Bolsheviks. While the White Army and the White Council were important in the demise of the Bolshevik Communists, they played heavily on the existing rift in the group. Had the leadership not been actively distrusting one another, and weapons figuratively if not realistically drawn, the Bolsheviks are believed to have had a greater chance against the White Army, and thus we may have known a world without the SNOR.