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Formerly the southernmost region of ‘Iraaq, Al-Basra declared its independence in the wake of the environmental devastation inflicted on its land during the Perso-‘Iraaqi War of the 1980s and the Gulf War (‘Iraaqi invasion of Kuwayt) in the early 1990s. Another important cause of the secession was the oppression suffered by the mostly Shi‘ite "Marsh Arabs" of Al-Basra at the hand of Saddaam Hussayn and his Sunni powerbase up in Baghdaad. However, since the more immediate cause of the rebellion was ecological, the Basris embraced an Ecotopian ideology, and Oregonian Peace Keepers assisted them in building their country. Since independence, Basri culture has developed a stronger and stronger emphasis on revolutionary ecotopianism, as well as an obsession with the ancient Sumerians who inhabited the area. The head of state is known by the title lugal - Sumerian for 'king' - and for a decade after independence Basri ecoterrorists routinely infiltrated ‘Iraaq, attempting to destroy its oil-production infrastructure. This lingering conflict with ‘Iraaq lasted until the March 2003 ‘Iraaqi ultimatum when Hussayn threatened to reconquer Al-Basra. A coalition of regional, world Ecotopic, and other forces came to Al-Basra's defense, and in the end Hussayn was deposed by his own people, ushering a hopeful new era of peace into the region. After the 2003 scare, Basri terrorist activity against ‘Iraaq ended, and Al-Basra has turned its back for good on its own oil-producing capacities, seeking now to live a quiet existence in harmony with the natural world and its neighbors.