Xliponian

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Arvorec: Slyponec; Castilian: Esliponio; Dutch: Xliponisch; Francien: Xliponien;
German: Schliponiſch; Greek: Σλιπονικά; Hebrew: שליפונית; Japanese: 施語 (Xigo);
Jovian: Xiboeneindse; Portuguese: Xliponiano; Russian: Шлипонский;
Slvanjek: Szliponjek; Wenedyk: Śliponik; Xliponian: Xliponic

Contents

The Xliponian Language

by

ILB .gif
Institut Lingistic Bovlai
Bovlai Institute of Linguistics

Foxlo sin serm est foxlo sin hor

A Brief Introduction

Xliponian (the letter x is pronounced [ʃ]) is an Indo-European language spoken almost exclusively in the Kingdom of Xliponia. It is derived from the vulgar Latin of the Roman imperial conquerors who occupied the region in the early centuries of the Common Era. The main feature that distinguishes Xliponian from other Romance languages is the soundshift suffered very early by some consonantal sounds. The labials, velars and dentals of the original (vulgar) Latin were transformed as follows:


[b] > [p] > [f] > [v] > [b]
[g] > [k] > [x] > [g]
[d] > [t] > [ts] > [z] > [d]


(The [x] sound – as in German Bach – is currently written as h; the [ts] sound is written ç)

This Lautverschiebung affected word-initial consonants, but not all, and some medial and (to a lesser extent) final consonants were also shifted.


The alphabet – with pronunciations – is as follows:


a b c ([k]) ç ([ts]) d e f g h ([h] or [x] according to position and dialect)
i j ([ʒ]*) k* l m n o p q ([tʃ]) r s t u v w* x ([ʃ]) y* z

(*) in foreign or dialectal words


The [ʃ] sound – written x – derives mainly from the Latin word-initial clusters [kl], [fl], [pl], which became [ʃl]. Xliponian q comes to a large extent from Latin x.


Another characteristic aspect of Xliponian phonology is diphthongisation. The main vowel of the original Latin word becomes affected by that of the ending, generating evolutions like L panem > Xl fain, and likewise cantus > haunt, salix > sailq. Latin ae and oe became ai and oi respectively.


The stress pattern is generally as follows: words ending in vowels are stressed on the penultimate, and words ending in consonants on the ultimate.


As an example, the numerals from 1 to 10 are as follows in Modern Xliponian:


on – tou – çers – hautor – henc – seq – seft – ohto – nou – teih

100-Word Swadesh List

[Compare this with Swadesh lists in other languages]
I you we this that who? what? no(t) all a lot
eco çu nos ete ate hi? hu? non çot mux
one two big long small human man woman fish bird
on tou maun lonc eqic om om vemma fiq aib
dog louse tree seed leaf root (tree-)bark skin meat blood
hain fetixlo arpor semm voil raqi horçeq huiç haur sainc
bone (body-)fat egg head horn tail feather hair ear eye
oq atef oub hauf hourn hauta fena hirn auri ouhul
nose mouth tooth tongue (finger-)nail leg knee hand stomach neck
naus puca teint lincua unca hurs ceun main bentr houl
breast heart liver to drink to eat to bite to see to hear to know to sleep
feq hor iecro piper mauncar moirer biter auter qier tormer
to die to kill to swim to fly to go to come to lie (down) to sit to stand to give
morer oqider naçar bolar eçir bener humper asiter star tonar
to say sun moon star water rain stone sand earth cloud
tiqer soil luna qela acua xluib saq aren teir nupe
smoke fire ash to burn road mountain red green yellow white
vum inci hin arter bia monn ruper biret valb alp
black night hot cold full new good round dry name
nicer noq halit virc xleun noub poun roçunn siq noim

Some Points of Grammar

Plurals of Nouns and Adjectives

sg. -a1 -e -i -o -u -C2
pl. -e -i -i -o -i -Ci

1 mainly for feminine nouns and adjectives
2 C = consonant

Personal Pronouns

Nom.Acc.Dat.Gen.
1secomemimei (fem. mea)
2sçuçeçiçei (fem. çea)
3s masc.totetentei (fem. tea)
3s fem.lalelenlei (fem. lea)
3refl.omsesisei (fem. sea)
1pnosnosnosnosser
2pbosbosbosbosser
3plitemtemtenen

Verbal Paradigms

(Alternative verbal forms in parentheses)

Eser "to be" - also auxiliary verb for imperfect (with a + infinitive of main verb) and for passive voice (with participle of main verb)

PersonPresentPerfectImperfectFutureConditional/
Subjunctive
Infinitive
Participle
Gerund
Imperative
1ssuivuiermgabo eserseieser
2sesvusersgabes eserseiesut
3sestvutertgabet eserseiesenn
1psumvumeramgabem esersinei (pl. eit)
2peisvuiseratgabeis esersin
3psunnvunneranngabenn esersin


Gaber "to have" - also auxiliary verb for future (with infinitive of main verb)

PersonPresentPerfectImperfectFutureConditional/
Subjunctive
Infinitive
Participle
Gerund
Imperative
1sgabogabuierm a gabergabo gabergabeigaber
2sgabesgabisers a gabergabes gabergabeigabut
3sgabetgabitert a gabergabet gabergabeigabenn
1pgabemgabuim
(gaberam)
eram a gabergabem gabergabingabi (pl. gabit)
2pgabeisgabuis
(gaberas)
eirm a gabergabeis gabergabin
3pgabenngabuinn
(gaberann)
erann a gabergabenn gabergabin


Mauncar "to eat" - paradigm for verbs in -ar

PersonPresentPerfectImperfectFutureConditional/
Subjunctive
Infinitive
Participle
Gerund
Imperative
1smauncomauncuierm a mauncargabo mauncarmauncaimauncar
2smauncasmauncisers a mauncargabes mauncarmauncaimauncut
3smauncatmauncitert a mauncargabet mauncarmauncaimauncann
1pmauncammauncim
(mauncaram)
eram a mauncargabem mauncarmauncinmaunci (pl. mauncit)
2pmauncaismauncuis
(mauncaras)
eirm a mauncargabeis mauncarmauncin
3pmauncannmauncinn
(mauncarann)
erann a mauncargabenn mauncarmauncin


Piper "to drink" - paradigm for verbs in -er and -ir

PersonPresentPerfectImperfectFutureConditional/
Subjunctive
Infinitive
Participle
Gerund
Imperative
1spipopipuierm a pipergabo piperpipeipiper
2spipespipisers a pipergabes piperpipeipiput
3spipetpipitert a pipergabet piperpipeipipenn
1ppipempipim
(piperam)
eram a pipergabem piperpipinpipi (pl. pipit)
2ppipeispipuis
(piperas)
eirm a pipergabeis piperpipin
3ppipennpipinn
(piperann)
erann a pipergabenn piperpipin

Some Useful Expressions and Words

(to be expanded)

See Xliponian for Travellers

a = of (genitive / possessive relation); a res a = because of; ac = and; aciç = thus; ad = to (destination); alihit = something; atte = thence; au = or; auçem = then; cunne = therewith; de = by (passive voice); eh = behold, lo!; eq = out of; ete = this; eti = these; fer = for (as in exchanging ... for ...); fro = for (before noun); ha = that; hihumme = any; hirha = about; hom = as (in the manner of); hui = whose; ihirc = therefore; ilo = that one; in = in; inte = therein; item = (the) same; non = not; omoto = nonetheless; ot = for, in order to, so that (before verb); set = but; si = if; sihuç = in any way; sin = without; sufra = on top of, about

Names of the Letters of the Alphabet

A [a:]
B [be:]
C [ke:]
Ç [tse:]
D [de:]
E [e:]
F [ɛf]
G [ge:]
H [ha:]
I [i:]
J [ʒi:]
K [ka:]
L [ɛl]
M [ɛm]
N [ɛn]
O [o:]
P [pe:]
Q [tʃe:]
R [ɛr]
S [ɛs]
T [te:]
U [u:]
V [ve:]
W [vetu'flɛtʃ]
X [ʃi:]
Y [i'krajx]
Z [ze:]

Archaic Spelling

Xliponian spelling was regularised in the mid-19th century. Before that, two main alternative spelling modes were in effect beside the present one. They may still be seen in ancient texts and inscriptions.

They are the Latinate and the Venedate spelling, based respectively on those used by several other Romance languages, and on Wenedyk. The main differences from the present mode are as follows [noted as Present < Latinate; Venedate]:

  • c < k; k
  • v < v; w
  • i < j [initial; both modes]
  • f < ph [initial; both modes]
  • i < y [before another vowel]; i
  • x < sc; sz
  • ç < th; c
  • q < ch; cz
  • h < h; ch [when sounded as German ich-Laut or ach-Laut]

Sometimes a circumflex or a tilde was written over a, e, i, o for au, eu, iu, ou;
Sometimes an acute or a macron was written above a vowel preceding a doubled consonant (which was then spelled single).

The Babel Text in Xliponian

1Inçerertonsermaconmotlincui.
Inearthwas [3rd sg.]onelanguageandoneway[of] tongues.
2Vuthasalirinndeorientacinbeninn
[It] wasthatthey went outfromeastandthey found
hampinçerXinaracapiçarinninte.
field / plaininlandShinarandthey dwelttherein.
3Actiqitomadom,benit,vahemlaçri
Andsaid [3rd sg.]mantoman,come [2nd pl.]let us makebricks
achocuimtemininciacgabuinnlaçrihomsaqi
andlet us baketheminfireandthey hadbricksasstones
acpeçuimhomhimenn.
andslimeformortar.
4Actiqirann,benit,vahemnoshibiçaitacçur
Andthey said,come [2nd pl.],let us makeuscityandtower
huihulminfertincitadhailachelipremnoimnosser
whosetopmay reachtoheavenandlet us celebratenameour
otnonsintibitutiinçeriçoti.
so thatnotwe bescatteredinlandsall.
5AuçemteqinnitTomenotbiterhibiçaitacçur
Thencame down [3rd sg.]the Lordso thatseecityandtower
haaiçficarannviliAdam.
thatbuilt [3rd pl.]sons[of] Adam.
6Actiqit,ehfoxloestonacsermteneneston,
Andsaid [3rd sg.],beholdpeopleisoneandlanguagetheirisone,
acetehoifrinnvaher,acnongabenn tesistiraçothahocitannvaher.
andthisthey have begundo,andnotthey will give upfromallthatthey thinkdo.
7Ehbenitteqinnemachofunnemipisermtenen
Beholdcome [2nd pl.]let us go downandlet us confoundtherelanguagetheir
otnongabet autiromlincuaom.
so thatnotshall hear [3rd sg.]mantongueofman.
8AciçtibitittemTomeneqlohiloadçeriçoti
Thusscattered [3rd sg.]themthe Lordout ofplacethatinlandsall
achesarannaiçficarhibiçait.
andthey ceasedbuildcity.
9AcihircnoimtenenestbohutBabela res aipi
AndthereforenametheiriscalledBabelbecausethere
honvusitTomensermaçerçotacatte
confusedthe Lordlanguageofearthallandthence
Tomensfirsittemsufravaihaçerçot.
the Lordscatteredthemuponfaceofearthall.


[Modern Xliponian Version]

Tintin Titles as Pointers to Xliponian Pronunciation

Interest for Tintin in Xliponia was fuelled by the Syldavian adventure (a roman à clef of sorts), and translations into the Xliponian language started in 1940, always published by Bernard & Croll. The main characters are called Tintin, Milu, Capitan Hadoc, Profesor Trifon Geliçorf, Carol ac Karol.

The titles of the Xliponian books (Abençuri a Tintin [aben'tsurjə tin'tin] - a “of” normally pronounced as schwa) are pronounced as follows:

Title IPA Remark
Tintin in Çer SNOR T. [in tsɛr snɔr] 1
Tintin in Kongo T. [iŋ 'koŋgo] 2
Tintin in America T. [in ame'rika]
Çigari a Faraon [tsi'garjə fara'on] 3
Lotus Hairul [lo'tus haj'rul] 4
Auri Vracut ['awri vra'kut]
Insul Nicer [in'sul ni'ker] 5
Çeptro a Ottokar ['tsɛptrwə ot:o'kar] 6
Hancri a Unci Aurosi ['haŋkrjə 'uŋki aw'rosi] 7
Qela Misteriosa ['tʃɛla misteri'osa] 8
Sehret a Onhourn [se'xretə on'howrn] 9
Çesaur a Rackham Ruper [tse'sawrə rak'ham ru'per]
Seft Pulli a Cristal [sɛft 'pul:jə kris'tal]
Çempl a Soil ['tsɛmplə sojl] 4
Tintin in Çer a Auro Nicer T. [in 'tsɛrə 'awro ni'ker]
Sohp Luna [soxp 'luna] 9
Ammularann sufra Luna [am:ula'ran: 'sufra 'luna]
Hauz Geliçorf [hawz geli'tsɔrf] 10
Coc in Stoc [kɔk in stɔk]
Tintin in Tibet T. [in ti'bet]
Ornammi a Castafiore [or'nam:jə kastafi'ore]
Bol 714 ad Sednîr [bɔl sɛftɔnhaw'tor ad sed'ni:r] 11
Tintin ac Picaros T. [ak 'pikaros] 12
Tintin ac Alf-Art T. [ak alf'art]

Remarks:
1 e, o in monosyllables are normally [ɛ], [ɔ]
2 nk, ng are sounded with [ŋ] even across word boundaries
3 Stressed o before a single consonant is sounded [o]
4 The diphthongs are: ai [aj], ei [ej], oi [oj], ui [uj], au [aw], eu [ew], iu [iw], ou [ow]
5 Stressed e before a single consonant is sounded [e]
6 Stressed e before more than one consonant is sounded [ɛ]; doubly-written consonants are pronounced long (even in foreign words)
7 s is always sounded [s]
8 io is no diphthong
9 h sounds as [h] or [x] depending on environment
10 Stressed o before more than one consonant is sounded [ɔ]
11 e (from seft) and o (from on) in the composite seftonhautor "seven-one-four" remain [ɛ] and [ɔ] as in the respective single words; “714” may also be pronounced [sɛft'hɛn: hawtor'tex] (sefthenn hautorteh "seven hundred fourteen")
12 Foreign pronunciation of Picaros

The covers of the Xliponian albums:

TXL-Covers1.jpg
TXL-Covers2.jpg
TXL-Covers3.jpg
TXL-Covers4.jpg

See also

Indo-European - Italic languages
Latin / Romance Languages Faliscan †
Oscan †
Umbrian †
Western Romance Lingua Franca Sardinian Xliponian South-Central Romance North-Central Romance Eastern
Britanno-Romance Gallo-Romance Northern Italian Ibero-Romance Jovian Central and southern Italian Germano-Romance Dalmatian Rumanian Levantine Baazramani
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