| Part of the Politics series on Ecotopism|
Ecotopism is a modern political ideal, dating only back to the 1700's at the earliest. It has come to be recognized as one of the more progressive and 'humanist' of all political ideologies.
The earliest beginnings of the Ecotopic Movement can be traced to the Age of Enlightenment, where great thinkers pondered on the world around them. Many, influenced by their belief in the bible took to heart a verse of Genesis, Chapter 2, verse 15:
- And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
By extrapolation all the Earth is thus given to man's care. Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus went on to suggest that because humanity was experiencing unchecked growth it would eventually outstrap the ability of the Earth to feed it, and there would be a population implosion. From this, he went on to extrapolate what would later become the "Tenets of Ecotopism."
Ecotopism can also trace its roots back to the kingdoms of Britain, where ecological sensitivities were heightened compared to those of the rest of the continent. This feeling of Ecological responsibility is evident (at some level) in the works of Erasmus and Charles Darwin, Seoirse Bearnárd Ó Sé, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
While it was not a full-fledged ideology, Ecotopism was influencial in mitigating some of the destruction of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the Americas. Ecologists of modern days have speculated that our world could be a very different place had there not been a reliance on natural energies, such as the flow of water or wind.
Ernst von Haeckel
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August von Haeckel is best credited as a father of modern Ecotopism. Already well known for his "recapitulation theory", which spoke to the similarities of foetuses at stages early in development, von Haeckel went on to add his clout to Ecotopism.
Von Haeckel worked extensively with Reverend Malthus in the development of Ecotopic theory. At the time, and somewhat to the present, his followers were called Haeckelers.
Von Haeckel felt that while man had the power to control nature and bend it to his will, he should not. Von Haeckel believed that the statement "propter vitam vivendi perdere causas" (to destroy the reasons for living for the sake of life) was the mantra of the capitalists in the world. Von Haeckel became very vocal on the subject, garnering some support from Karl Marx. This was a fleeting union, as von Haeckel distanced himself quickly from Marx and his radical ideals prior to his publication of the Communist Manifesto.
Ecotopism is the political idea that the environment is one of the (if not the) most important factors in making major decisions, especially in e.g. industry. The premise is that recognition of our place in a living ecosystem and the potential for wrecking havoc with same is the cornerstone of social foresight and political wisdom. Implicit in same is an acceptance of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and that the human species is subject to such. Ecotopian theory may also incorporate some socialist elements into their ideals. Modern Ecotopism has received a great deal of strength from the ideas of the Native Americans, who believe that humanity and nature could co-exist.
The actual word "Ecotopia" (derived from Thomas More's Utopia, a seminal work on Socialism) was coined in the 19th century. In many ways it was a response to the growing number of empires spreading across the globe, and the potential for warfare on a world-wide scale (worries proven correct in the wake of the First and Second Great Wars). It was also offered as an alterntive criticism of the Industrial Revolution, a new direction forward rather than a call for return to the past.
Present in all ecotopic nations are the Tenets of Ecotopism.
- Tenets of Ecotopism:
- Nature must be preserved and maintained as our Garden
- Man must respect nature
- Man and Nature must serve one-another
- The Questions of Ecotopism:
- What is the value to Humanity?
- What is the harm to nature?
- What better way can the same ends be acheived?
- Can we live well without this change?
The Tenets and Questions were not codified until the creation of the Oregonian Ecotopia in the latter half of the 20th century. When the Louwala-Clough erupted on May 18, 1980, all of North America was affected. The response of the Oregonians, however was something unexpected. Rather than abandon the region, the Oregonians have worked diligently to restore the region to its former beauty, and to great ends. While landforms have changed, the forests have grown dramatically in the 25 years following the explosion.
Oregon, as leader, has created the Ecotopic League, fostering Ecotopic nations around the world, and supporting the "Green Parties" that exist in nearly every nation. Oregon eagerly embraced Nikola Tesla's Tesla Generators, and have also worked to establish other forms of ecologically friendly power generation, farming, ranching and forestry.
Due to the focus on the environment, Ecotopism is, in practice, a very labourious form of government, with time intensive debates, and often far from the utopia as promised. Ecotopic governments have proven relatively stable to the present day.
Four Pillars of Ecotopism
The four pillars can be viewed as a resume of the Tenents and Questions.
- Ecology - ecological sustainability
- Justice - social responsibility
- Democracy - appropriate decision-making
- Peace - non-violence
Acceptance of the Seven Generations Viewpoint
With growing cognizance outside of the NAL of the cultural viewpoint of Seven Generations, Ecotopic groups around the world have begun espousing this doctrine, meshing well with the Tenets and Questions of Ecotopism. There has been some agitation in recent years to codify this into the Ecotopic movement's platform.
Ecotopism takes many forms on the world stage and is not always known as Ecotopism, sometimes being referred to as a green party, as in France until 2001 when the green party or "les verts" changed their name to L'Ecotopie. A port-manteau has been created, and in Frace those that ascribe to the green or ecotopic philosophy are often refered to as haricots verts, or green beans, deriving from the term éco-verts. Other examples are listed below.
'Small-g' green parties
A generic green party is any contemporary political movement which springs out of concern for the destruction of ecosystems, but does not embody the ecotopic movement and are not necessarily committed to the entire program of ecotopism.
The first ecotopic parties were founded as "values conservatives", and sometimes "liberal conservatives". The term "green" has been heavily appropriated by politicians and marketers, even used as a verb — it is not uncommon to hear of "greening" a party or a candidate. Typically these are 'small-g greens' and do not support the larger ecotopic vision.
Types of Ecotopism
In Oregon ecotopism is a Direct Representative Democracy, as all ethnicities, religious groups and communes are asked to participate in the government.
Following its independence from Iraaq, Al-Basra became an Ecotopic Republic, going to the extreme of closing down and destroying all oil-production facilities.
Following its independence from Bornei-Filipinas, the Malucos became an Ecotopic Republic.
Corcaigh (Cork) is a single city and district run on Ecotopic principles.
The Empire of Santo Domingo is home to a World Ecotopic Reserve, which was founded by Oregonian forces during the occupation. This was further codified by the League of Nations, and looks to set a trend around the world.
A new spin on Ecotopism has surfaced in Nea Illenicia, as the principles of Ecotopism have been merged with Socialism.
Notable Ecotopian Countries
- Ecotopic Arab Republic of Al-Basra
- Ecotopic Republic of the Malucos
- (People’s) Ecotopic Republic of Oregon
- (People’s) Autonomous Ecotopic District of Corcaigh (Ireland)
- World Ecotopic Reserve, Saint-Domingo