Japanese Government

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The present-day Third Constitution of the Empire of Japan went into effect Saisei 13, Gogaçu 4 (June 8, 1964).

Contents

Division of powers

Executive

  • The Emperor: Must be of the Imperial House (articles 1 and 2). Until Sasei 44 (1995), could only be male. In that year, the law was revised to permit female sucession. Reigns until death or abdication. The Emperor is considered a "sacred and majestic being" (article 3). The Emperor is Head of the Empire (article 4), and excercises executive authority. The Emperor's approval is needed for all laws and amendments. The Emperor can issue Imperial ordinances in times of emergency when the Parliament is not in session (article 8), the Emperor is the chief executive, and makes treaties, nominates ambassadors, confers titles of nobility, controls the Imperial House, can alter Imperial Succession, speaks before the Imperial Parliament on the state of the Empire annually, and provides a moral model to the people of Japan. The Emperor lacks power over the military. The Emperor may appoint members to the House of Peers. The Emperor may be deposed by a ¾ vote of both houses of the Parliament and a majority of the Cabinet
    • Note: The Imperial ruler of Japan is often referred to as "Emperor" in English whether male or female. The reigning Emperor is female.
  • Imperial Cabinet: Consists of a Prime Minister, chosen by the Emperor with consent of the Parliament, and a number of other ministers of state, chosen by the Prime Minister with the Emperor's consent. The Cabinet gives advise to the Emperor; the approval of Prime Minister and "competent Minister of State" are required along with the Emperor's approval for all laws, but by a 2/3 vote, the Coccai may over-ride a veto by those ministers. The Cabinent must resign en masse if A) The Emperor orders it, or B) the Parliament passes a Vote of No-Confidence

Legislative

  • The Imperial Parliament
    • Elections are held on the last day of the month, with new members taking office on the 4th day of the next month.
    • The House of Peers: Consists of representatives of the nobility and other categories determined by law. May propose laws to the House of Representatives. Has the power to veto laws passed by the House of Representatives (subject to override by 3/5 vote)
    • The House of Representatives: Consists of 620 representatives, 420 from single-seat constituencies and 200 chosen by proportional election in each province. Elected to 3-year terms (or until dissolution of Parliament). Most recent election was Gacudai Gannen, Jùitxigaçu 30 (December 31, 2004).
    • The House of Regions: Has no power. Consists of a single representative from each Region, plus the Kingdoms of Corea and Lùquiù and the Republic of Ezo. These representatives have voice but not vote in the other two Houses.

Judicial

  • The Supreme Court of the Empire of Japan - Judges nominated by the Emperor and approved by the Parliament, has power to determine constitutionality
    • One High Court per constituent - Judges chosen by chief executive of each constituent, with the approval of the legislature thereof; generally has power to determine constitutionality.
      • Various district courts - Established by the constituent governments; usually includes provincial courts as an intermediate level

Internal division

  • 3 Kingdoms and 1 Republic, each of which are governed internally as they wish, with a few restrictions:
    • No constituent shall pass any laws, or contain any clause in their Constitution, contrary to the Constitution of the Empire of Japan
    • No constituent shall make alliances or treaties with other constituents or foreign powers, unless the Imperial Parliament and the Emperor shall approve
    • No constituent, except for the Kingdoms of Lùquiù, Corea and Yamato, shall be headed be headed by a non-elected official, unless the Imperial Parliament and the Emperor shall approve
    • The King (or Queen) of Corea is one and the same with the Emperor of Japan
    • The succession to the throne of Lùquiù shall be subject to the consent of the Emperor

Constitution of Japan

Structure

  • Chapter I (Articles 1-20) - The Emperor, rights, powers, titles, and duties; regency
  • Chapter II (Articles 21-52) - Rights and Duties of the People
  • Chapter III (Articles 53-84) - The Parliament, organization, powers, election
  • Chapter IV (Articles 85-97) - The Cabinet, organization, powers, how chosen
  • Chapter V (Articles 98-106) - The Judiciary
  • Chapter VI (Articles 107-114) - Finance
  • Chapter VII (Articles 115-126) - Local Government
  • Chapter VIII (Articles 127-129) - Amendment Process
  • Chapter IX (Articles 130-131) - Constitution defined as Supreme Law
  • Chapter X (Articles 132-134) - Additional Provisions
  • Amendment I (Articles 135-136) - Excludes Imperial Family from military service (those in the services at the time were exempted); denies money to ò and nio'ò (except by Imperial Dispensation)
  • Amendment II (Articles 137-144) - Recognizes Kingdom of Lùquiù as a constituent of the Empire
  • Amendment III (Articles 145-151) - Recognizes Republic of Ezo as a consitituent of the Empire
  • Amendment IV (Articles 152-163) - Recongizes Kingdom of Yamato as a constituent of the Empire; renounces claims to Kanawiki

Chapter I

The Emperor

Article 1. The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over by an unbroken dynastic line of Emperors

Article 2. Succession to the Throne of Japan shall be dynastic, as determined by the Imperial House Law
(2) No clause in the Imperial House Law shall give status as an Imperial House member to anyone, except by right of birth, through patrilineal descent
(3) The Imperial House shall be governed by the Emperor, according to the terms of the Imperial House Law

Article 3. The Emperor is a sacred and majestic being, deriving his authority from his ancestors.

Article 4. The Emperor is the head of the Empire, and the source of all authority, wielded according to the provisions of the present Constitution

Article 5. The Emperor exercises executive powers with the consent of the Parliament and Cabinet.

Article 6. The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed.

Article 7. The Emperor convokes the Parliament, opens, closes, and prorogues it, and, with the consent of the Cabinet, dissolves the House of Representatives

Article 8. The Emperor, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public calamities, issues, when the Parliament is not sitting, Imperial Ordinances in the place of law.
(2) Such Imperial Ordinances are to be laid before the Parliament at its next session, and if the Parliament does not approve the said Ordinances, the Government shall declare them to be invalid for the future.

Article 9. The Emperor issues or causes to be issued, Ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the maintenance of the public peace and order, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.

Article 10. The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and salaries of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same. Exceptions, specially provided for in the present Constitution or in other laws, shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon).

Article 11. The Emperor makes peace and concludes treaties, with consent of the Parliament.

Article 12. The Emperor declares a state of siege.
(2) The conditions and effects of a state of siege shall be determined by law.

Article 13. The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honor
(2) With the approval of the Parliament, the Emperor appoints all ambassadors and foreign ministers

Article 14. The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabilitation.

Article 15. In the event that the Emperor shall be unable to exercise his authority, by the terms of the Imperial House Law, a Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law.
(2) The Regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the Emperor in His name.
(3) The Regent shall not be head of the Imperial House, if he is not a member of the Imperial House

Article 16. The Emperor shall have power to alter the Imperial Succession, provided that no one who is not a member of the Imperial House, as determined by the Imperial House Law, shall be in the Succession.

Article 17. The Emperor shall also hold the titles of King of Corea, High King of Kanawiki, and High King of Micronesia, and shall exercise all powers granted to the King or High King by the Constitutions thereof. Modified by Amendement IV

Article 18. The Emperor may become head of state of other nations, by his approval, the approval of the Imperial Parliament and Cabinet, and the approval of the appropriate legislative body of said nation, and shall likewise exercise all power granted by the Constitutions of those nations.
(2) Any additional titles of the Emperor, not granted by this Constitution, may be renounced at will by the Emperor, or removed from him in accordance with the statute, law, or ordinance originally bestowing the title upon him

Article 19. The Emperor shall speak before the Parliament at least once every year, to detail the state of the Empire, and to propose changes in policy or laws.

Article 20. The Emperor is required to provide a moral model to his people, and to exercise all sacred duties and religious rites required by tradition.

Chapter II

Rights and Duties of the People

Article 21. The rights of the people, as specified herein, are eternal and inviolate, restricted only as spelled out in this Constitution.

Article 22. The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare.

Article 23. All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life and liberty shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs.

Article 24. Citizens of the Empire may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed to civil or military or any other public offices equally.

Article 25. Citizens and legal residents are amenable to service in the Army or Navy, and may be required to serve by law, but no required duty shall exceed three years unless the nation is in danger of invasion, furthermore, no one holding or formerly holding citizenship in a nation with whom the Empire is at war, shall be required to serve in the Army or Navy for the duration of said war.

Article 26. All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, language, creed, sex, social status or family origin

Article 27. All citizens have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them.
(2) All public officials are servants of the whole community and not of any group thereof.
(3) The right to vote shall not be denied or restricted to citizens of the Empire by cause of race, language, creed, sex, social status or family origin
(4) In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall not be violated. A voter shall not be answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made.

Article 28. Every citizen shall have the right of peaceful petition for the redress of damage, for the removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, ordinances or regulations and for other matters; nor shall any person be in any way discriminated against for sponsoring such a petition.

Article 29. Every citizen may sue for redress as provided by law from the State or a public entity, in case he has suffered damage through illegal act of any public official.

Article 30. No person shall be held in bondage of any kind. Involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime, is prohibited.

Article 31. Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated.

Article 32. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all.
(2) No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice.

Article 33. Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed.

Article 34. No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of communication be violated, unless the safety of the nation requires it, and then only according to a law which shall specify the conditions under which such restrictions or violations shall be permissible, and the term during which the law shall operate, not to exceed 4 years

Article 35. Every person shall have freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose his occupation to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare.
(2) Freedom of all persons to move to a foreign country and to divest themselves of their nationality shall be inviolate.

Article 36. Academic freedom is guaranteed.

Article 37. All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living.
(2) In all spheres of life, the State shall use its endeavors for the promotion and extension of social welfare and security, and of public health.

Article 38. All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided for by law.
(2) All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary education as provided for by law. Such compulsory education shall be free.

Article 39. All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.
(2) Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law.
(3) Children shall not be exploited.

Article 40. The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed.

Article 41. The right to own or to hold property is inviolable.
(2) Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.
(3) Private property may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor.

Article 42. The people shall be liable to taxation as provided for by law.

Article 43. No person shall be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any other criminal penalty be imposed, except according to procedure established by law.

Article 44. No person shall be denied the right of access to the courts.

Article 45. No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial officer which specifies the offense with which the person is charged, unless he is apprehended as the offense is being committed.

Article 46. No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.

Article 47. The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or except as provided by Article 45.
(2) Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant issued by a competent judicial officer.

Article 48. The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely forbidden.

Article 49. In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial tribunal.
(2) He shall be permitted full opportunity to examine all witnesses, and he shall have the right of compulsory process for obtaining witnesses on his behalf at public expense.
(3) At all times the accused shall have the assistance of competent counsel who shall, if the accused is unable to secure the same by his own efforts, be assigned to his use by the State.

Article 50. No person shall be compelled to testify against himself.
(2) Confession made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention shall not be admitted in evidence.

Article 51. No person shall be held criminally liable for an act which was lawful at the time it was committed, or of which he had been acquitted, nor shall he be placed in double jeopardy.

Article 52. Any person may, in case he is acquitted after he has been arrested or detained, sue the State for redress as provided for by law.

Chapter III

The Parliament

Article 53. The Parliament shall consist of three houses: The House of Representatives, the House of Peers, and the House of Regions

Article 54. Elections for Parliament shall be held on the last day of the 36th month after the most recent election, with the winners of said election taking office on the 4th day of the next month.
2) The first election after the ratification of this Constitution shall take place within 3 months of said ratification

Article 55. The House of Representatives shall consist of two categories of members elected for three-year terms. However, the term shall be terminated before the full term is up in case the House of Representatives is dissolved.

Article 56. The first category in the above-mentioned division shall be elected in specially-constituted electoral districts, which shall be equal to the electoral districts used under the previous Constitution; but districts shall be redrawn periodically, not to exceed ten years between redrawings, nor to be less than three years.

Article 57. The second category in the above-mentioned division shall be elected in multi-seat constituencies. Unless altered by local law, constituencies shall consist of provinces.

Article 58. The two categories shall differ only as to elections.

Article 59. The number of members in the House of Representatives, and in each category, shall be determined by the House; but neither category shall be reduced below 100 members.

Article 60. The qualifications of members of the House of Representatives and their electors shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, language, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income.
(2) No members shall be elected from the Micronesian Confederation or the High Kingdom of Kanawiki

Article 61. The members of the House of Peers shall be chosen from among the nobility as determined by law.

Article 62. The Emperor may appoint members to the House of Peers, subject to approval by the House of Peers.

Article 63. The House of Regions shall consist of a single representative from every Region, and a representative from the Kingdom of Corea, but shall have no power, only the right to speak in either of the other two Houses. In this Constitution, the term "House" shall not be taken to include the House of Regions

Article 64. No bill which has been rejected by either House may not be brought up again in the same session.

Article 65. A session of the Parliament shall last 3 months, unless specially extended by the Emperor.

Article 66. The Emperor may convoke extraordinary sessions of the Parliament, determining in the same Imperial Order how long the session shall last.

Article 67. The Parliament shall meet at least once a year.

Article 68. When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty days from the date of dissolution, and the Parliament must be convoked within thirty days from the date of the election.
(2) When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Peers is closed at the same time. However, the Emperor may, in time of national emergency, convoke the House of Peers in emergency session.
(3) Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding clause shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten days after the opening of the next session of the Parliament.

Article 69. Each House shall select its own president and other officials.
(2) Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.

Article 70. Members of both Houses and the House of Regions shall receive appropriate annual payment from the Imperial treasury in accordance with law.

Article 71. Except in cases as provided for by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Parliament is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House.

Article 72. Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.

Article 73. The deliberations of both Houses shall be held in public. The deliberations may, however, upon demand of the Cabinet or Emperor, or by vote or 2/3 of those present, be held in secret sitting.
(2) Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.
(3) The votes of all members shall be recorded

Article 74. Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

Article 75. Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one-half or more of total membership is present.
(2) All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided for in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.

Article 76. Both Houses of the Parliament may respectively present addresses to the Emperor.

Article 77. Both Houses may receive petitions by the people.

Article 78. A bill becomes law upon approval of both Houses and the Emperor; but the House of Representatives may over-ride the House of Peers’ veto by a 2/3 vote.

Article 79. The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.
(2) Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of Peers makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in the case of failure by the House of Peers to take final action within thirty days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Parliament.

Article 80. The Parliament shall have power to ratify treaties signed by the Emperor, and a failure to ratify the treaty shall invalidate said treaty.

Article 81. Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

Article 82. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State may, at any time, appear in either House for the purpose of speaking on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the House or not. They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations.

Article 83. The Parliament shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purposes of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.
(2) Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided for by law.

Article 84. The Parliament shall have power to depose an Emperor by a vote of ¾ of both houses, and consent of the majority of the Cabinet, or 2/3 of the cabinet if the Prime Minister refuses consent. In case of an Emperor being deposed, the Parliament shall have power to choose a successor different from the one chosen by the Emperor, but the successor must be a member of the Imperial Family, and if the successor is beyond the second degree of relation, as determined by the Imperial House Law, it shall require a 2/3 vote of both houses. Until a new Emperor shall have been approved, the deposed Emperor shall retain the title, but with a Regent exercising the power. Said regent shall play no role in determining the new Emperor

Chapter IV

The Cabinet

Article 85. A Cabinet shall exist to give advice to the Emperor, and the Emperor may delegate authority in specific fields to officers of the Cabinet.

Article 86. The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.
(2) The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians.
(3) The Cabinet shall, in the exercise of executive power, be collectively responsible to the Parilament and Emperor.

Article 87. The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the Emperor with the consent of the Parliament.

Article 88. The other Ministers of State shall be chosen by the Prime Minister, with the consent of the Emperor.
(2) With the Emperor’s consent, the Prime Minister may dismiss any of his Ministers of State

Article 89. The Cabinet shall be held accountable for advice given to the Emperor

Article 90. The Emperor may order the Cabinet to resign en masse, or the Parliament may pass a no-confidence measure, in which case, the Cabinet is required to resign en masse.

Article 91. The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Parliament and the Emperor, and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.

Article 92. The Cabinet shall administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law

Article 93. All laws, cabinet orders, and Imperial Decrees, shall require the signature of the competent Minister of State and the Prime Minister.

Article 94. In the event that either the Prime Minister or the competent Minister of State do not approve a bill, it shall return to the Parliament; if 2/3 of both Houses consent to the bill, it shall become law.

Article 95. The Ministers of State shall not, during their tenure of office, be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister. However, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.

Article 96. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State shall receive regular compensation, which shall not be diminished during their term of office, unless the Prime Minister accepts such diminishment.

Article 97. With the approval of the Emperor, and a majority of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister may dissolve the House of Representatives

Chapter V

The Judiciary

Article 98. The justice system of the Empire of Japan shall consist of a Supreme Court, whose judges are nominated by the Emperor with the consent of the Cabinet.

Article 99. Every constituent shall have a High Court, whose judges shall be determined by the executive authority thereof, with the approval of the legislature thereof.

Article 100. Lower courts shall be established according to the laws of the constituents.

Article 101. Qualifications for judges shall be determined by law.

Article 102. No judge may be removed from his position unless convicted of crime or corruption, or of failing to justly administer the laws of the Empire

Article 103. Trials shall be conducted and judgement declared publicly.
(2) Where a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press or cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed in Chapter II of this Constitution are in question shall always be conducted publicly.

Article 104. The Supreme Court shall determine the Constitutionality of any law.

Article 105. The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs.
(2) Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court.
(3) The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such court

Article 106. All judges shall receive, at stated intervals, compensation for their duties, which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Chapter VI

Finance

Article 107. The Parliament shall have power to administer the Empire’s finances
(2) Except in cases given in this Constitution, no money may be spent from the Imperial Treasury without the approval of the Parliament.

Article 108. No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by law or under such conditions as law may prescribe.

Article 109. The Emperor and other members of the Imperial House shall receive, at regular intervals, compensation, according to the Imperial Household Finance Law. The Emperor or any member of the Imperial House may renounce this compensation at his discretion. [Modified slightly by Amendment I]

Article 110. The Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Parliament for its consideration and decision a budget for each fiscal year.

Article 111. In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be authorized by the Parliament to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet must get subsequent approval of the Parliament for all payments from the reserve fund.

Article 112. No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, except those under the Emperor’s auspices, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.

Article 113. Final accounts of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be audited annually by a Board of Audit and submitted by the Parliament, together with the statement of audit, during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.
(2) The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall be determined by law.

Article 114. At regular intervals and at least annually the Parliament and the people shall be informed of the state of national finances.

Chapter VII

Local Government

Article 115. Japan shall be divided into 8 divisions called Regions [], in addition to such constituents as are elsewhere in this Constitution recoginzed. The Regions shall be

  1. Cantò, consisting of the Provinces of Ibaraqui, Edo, Canagawa, Saitama, Txiba, Totxigui, and Gumma,
  2. Quiùxù, consisting of the island of Quiùxu, and islands belonging to provinces on the island of Quiùxu,
  3. Quiñqui, consisting of the Provinces of Òsaca, Quiòto, Xiga, Nara, Hiògo, Mie, Wacayama,
  4. Xicocu, consisting of the island of Xicocu, and islands belonging to Provinces on the island of Xicocu,
  5. Txùgocu, consisting of the Provinces of Ocayama, Ximane, Tottoli, Hiroxima, and Yamagutxi,
  6. Txùbu, consisting of the Provinces of Aitxi, Ixicawa, Guifu, Xizúoca, Toyama, Nagano, Nìgata, Fucúi, and Yamanaxi,
  7. Tòhocu, consisting of the Provinces of Aomoli, Aquita, Iwate, Miyagui, Fucuxima, and Yamagata, and
  8. Hoccaidò, consisting of the Provinces of Carafuto, Outer Manchuria, Txixima, and the entire island of Hoccaidò [This section repealed by Amendment III]

Article 116. Alterations to the internal structure of a constituent shall be entirely at the discretion of said constituent, subject only to the constitution thereof.

Article 117. The Imperial government may create new Regions out of acquired territory, or may give such territory to existing constituent as the Parliament and Emperor see fit.

Article 118. Except in the case given in Article 117, no new constituent may be created except by amendment to this Constitution.

Article 119. No new constituent shall be created out of an existing constituent without the consent of the people of the proposed constituent and of the existing constituent.

Article 120. No changes shall be made to the territorial extent of any constituent without the consent of the constituent(s) involved and of the Imperial Parliament and Emperor.

Article 121. Every constituent of the Empire shall be governed by a Constitution, and no such Constitution shall contain any clause contrary to the Imperial Constitution or any treaty ratified by the Empire of Japan.

Article 122. No constituent may pass any law contrary to the Imperial Constitution, or to any treaty signed by the Empire of Japan.

Article 123. No Region may coin money or emit bills of credit.

Article 124. No Region may, without approval of the Parliament and the people thereof, be governed by an unelected official.

Article 125. No treaty or compact between two or more constituents of the Empire or between any constituent of the Empire and a foreign power shall exist without the approval of the Emperor and the Parliament.

Article 126. No law shall be passed by the Parliament which is limited in its scope to a specific place or region without the approval of the people in the affected place or region.

Chapter VIII

Amendments

Article 127. Amendments to this present Constitution may be proposed by a vote of 2/3 of both houses of the Parliament, or alternately, at the request of the Emperor, a special Convention for proposing amendments may be called, consisting of representatives chosen for the purpose by the constituents of the Empire in proportion to their population. In either event, an amendment shall be a valid part of this Constitution when ratified by a majority vote in a majority of the constituents of the Empire, and approved by the Emperor; but any amendment approved during a Regency shall be reconsidered by the Emperor when the Regency ends.

Article 128. No amendment passed shall deprive any constituent of its constitutional rights or existence without the approval of that constituent.

Article 129. No amendment shall alter the dynastic nature of the Imperial House so as to recognize anyone not descended from a former Emperor in the male line as a member of the Imperial Family.

Chapter IX

Supreme Law

Article 130. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the Empire of Japan, and no law, Imperial edict, or treaty shall violate its provisions.

Article 131. The Emperor and all members of the government shall be required to uphold and defend this Constitution.

Chapter X

Additional Provisions

Article 132. This Constitution shall go into force immediately after it shall have been ratified by 6 provinces of Corea and 31 provinces of Japan.

Article 133. The official languages of this Empire shall be Japanese and Corean. All laws shall be written in one of those two languages, with an equally valid translation prepared into the other. All debates and discussions in the Parliament shall be in either language. Members of Parliament may be provided with translators if necessary. Constituents may choose either language, or another language, for internal purposes, but all laws shall be translated into Corean and Japanese. The Empire shall pay the translation costs for the Micronesian Confederation and the High Kingdom of Kanawiki.

Article 134. Elections for a new Parliament shall be held as soon as possible after ratification of this Constitution, but under no circumstances to exceed 6 months after ratification. Until a new Parliament has been chosen, the former Parliament shall exercise the powers herein granted to the Parliament.

Amendments

Amendment I

Article 135. No member of the Imperial Family may serve in the Army or Navy.
(2) Any member of the Imperial Family serving in the Army or Navy at the time of the ratification of this amendment may continue serving.

Article 136. No money shall be paid out in consequence of the Imperial Household Finance Law to any ò or nio’ò, except by special Imperial Dispensation.

Amendment II

Article 137. The Kingdom of Lùquiù shall be recognized as a constituent of the Empire of Japan.

Article 138. No provision to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Lùquiù or any law thereof, which is in conflict with this Constitution, shall be valid.

Article 139. All treaties entered into by the Kingdom of Lùquiù prior to the ratification of this amendment shall remain valid.

Article 140. All debts contracted by the Kingdom of Lùquiù prior to the ratification of this amendment shall be assumed by the Empire of Japan.

Article 141. The Emperor shall have the right of approval for succession to the Throne of Lùquiù, and in the event of an extinction of the Royal House, may approve a new successor or become the King.

Article 142. The Emperor shall have the title of Over-King of Lùquiù

Article 143. Japanese and Corean shall be official languages of the Kingdom of Lùquiù. All laws passed by the Kingdom shall be translated into those two languages; but the Empire shall assume the costs of translation. All other linguistic policy issues shall be the province of the Kingdom of Lùquiù.

Article 144. The Kingdom of Lùquiù shall have power to coin money and emit bills of credit, provided their currency corresponds to the Imperial Currency Law.

Amendment III

Article 145. The Region of Hoccaidò is hereby dissolved.

Article 146. The territory formerly known as Hoccaidò shall be recognized as the Republic of Ezo, and shall be recognized as a constituent of the Empire of Japan.

Article 147. The Emperor of Japan shall be First Citizen of Ezo, and shall exercise all the powers granted that position by the Constitution of the Republic of Ezo.
(2) This article may be voided by the Constitution of the Republic of Ezo, but not until 15 years have passed from the ratification of this amendment

Article 148. No provision in the Constitution of Ezo contrary to the Constitution of Japan, nor any law contrary to the Constitution of Japan, shall be held valid.

Article 149. All treaties entered into by the Republic of Ezo prior to the ratification of this amendment shall be held valid.

Article 150. All debts entered into by the Republic of Ezo prior to the ratification of this amendment shall be assumed by the Empire of Japan.

Article 151. The Republic of Ezo shall adopt a currency based on the Imperial Currency Law, and shall retain power to coin money and emit bills of credit, conforming to the Imperial Currency Law.

Amendment IV

Article 152. The titles of High King of Kanawiki and High King of Micronesia are no longer constitutionally protected. The High Kingdom of Kanawiki and the Micronesian Confederation are no longer recognized as constituents of the Empire, but rather, personal domains of the Emperor. Neither domain may be stripped from the Emperor without the Emperor’s consent.

Article 153. The seven Regions are hereby reorganized into a Kingdom of Yamato, with the Emperor of Japan as its King or Queen.

Article 154. The term "constituent of the Empire" shall be redefined to exclude the Regions in place of Yamato.

Article 155. For purposes of future amendments, "constituent of the Empire" shall consist of the the Regions of Yamato, the provinces of Corea, the Republic of Ezo, and the Kingdom of Lùquiù. But no future amendment shall be held valid, unless consented to by the citizens of a majority of the provinces of Corea and a majority of the regions of Yamato.

Article 156. A Constitutional Convention shall be called for the Kingdom of Yamato consisting of representatives from all over the proposed Kingdom. The Kingdom shall be dissolved, and this amendment held invalid, if a Constitution has not been approved within 2 years of the ratification of this amendment, and until such time as a new Constitution has been approved, the government of the Kingdom of Yamato shall be run according to the Imperial Constitution, excepting those clauses not applicable to Yamato, or otherwise modified by this amendment.

Article 157. The official language of the Kingdom of Yamato shall be Japanese, and all internal matters shall be handled in that language, but Yamato shall be required to translate its laws into Corean.

Article 158. No clause in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Yamato, nor any law passed by the same which conflicts with the Constitution of Japan shall be held valid.

Article 159. The present flag of the Empire of Japan shall revert to the Kingdom of Yamato, and a new flag shall be created for the Empire of Japan, but until the new flag is approved, the old flag shall continue in use.

Article 160. The currency produced by the Imperial government shall devolve to the authority of the Kingdom of Yamato.

Article 161. Upon ratification of a constitution, all matters currently handled by the Imperial government which affect only the 7 Regions shall devolve to the Kingdom of Yamato.

Article 162. A High Court for the Kingdom of Yamato shall be created.

Article 163. The Empire of Japan shall eternally consist of Yamato and Corea. Other constituents may secede if the people thereof decide to do so by 2/3 vote; but in any such case, negotiations shall be required with the Empire to determine the status of military forces, territorial extent, share of the Imperial Debt, and any other necessary issues.

See Also

Japanese Politics

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