Txixima district, in Nemuro Province, is the northernmost extension of the Empire of Japan. The islands passed to Japanese control in the Treaty of Ximoda, in which Russia renounced claims to Ezo Island and the Kurile/Txixima Islands in exchange for Japan renouncing control of Sakhalin/Carafuto. The islands to the south of Uruppu (commonly grouped together as Daitxixima, as opposed to Xòtxixima, which is Txixima District) had already been recognized as Japanese. There was little attempt at colonization, and the city-town-village system was not originally extended to them. Instead they were grouped into three districts, later merged into one, underneath Nemuro Branch (now Nemuro Province). Some villages have been formally recognized, but much of the district is still unorganized territory.
During the existence of the breakaway Republic of Ezo, the district was used as a place of exile for political dissidents. A short-lived separatist movement sprung up at the time of the fall of the Rational-Progressive party and subsequent reunification with Japan.
Villages located in Txixima District (possibly incomplete):
- Uruppu Island
- 床丹 Tocotan
- 見島 Mixima
- Xintxi Island
- 新知 Xinxiro