Xrivizaja

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Nagara Xrivizaja
State of Xrivizaja
Conventional short name:
Local: Xrivizaja
English: Xrivizaja, Srivijaya
State flag of Xrivizaja
National motto: Bersekutu Bertamba× Mutu
Languages:  
 Official: Malay
 Others: Ðaij, Minan̊kabau, Hokkien, Cantonese, Buginese, Batak
Cities:  
 Capital: Daik
 Largest: Singhapura
 Other: Palembam͂, Medan, Kuála Lumpur
Maharaza: Atixavarman IV
Prime minister: Suria Sam͂karaputra
Area: 239,354 mi²
Population: 81,191,000 Srivijayans
Currency: Srivijayan rim͂git
Organizations: Commonwealth of Nations (associate member)

Xrivizaja (Balagtas Alphabet: Srivijjaya) is a kingdom in Southeast Asia. It is an ancient state, rivaled in age only by Japan and surpassed only by the former Chinese empire, and has experienced various periods of growth and decline over the course of its history. It is one of the most developed countries in Southeast Asia along with Burma and Bornei-Filipinas, blessed with various natural resources such as tin and gold mines, oil reserves, and fertile lands for planting oil palm and other cash crops. Xrivizaja was a founding member of the Austronesian League and has also endeavoured to become a centre of Southeast Asian finances, maintaining close commercial ties with the Chinese League and Japan.

Contents

Administration

Government

Xrivizaja is a federal constitutional monarchy, with an ancient basis in the Mandala system that has defined relationships between Southeast Asian kingdoms in the past. The maharaza (emperor) of Uzom͂ Tana× (*here*'s Johor) is the monarch of all Xrivizaja, but the various kings are granted significant regional autonomy over their own rajadoms. In practice, the rajas do not have much political power in modern times, and most political decisions are undertaken by Parliament and the regional assemblies. The Xrivizajan Parliament (Kokhue) is composed of two halls: the Sabha Nagara, or Senate (literally National Council) and the Sabha Zalata, or House of Representatives (literally Popular Council). The Sabha Zalata is elected via a national vote every five years in electoral districts based on a first-past-the-post system, while the Sabha Nagara consists of 30 senators elected by the regional assemblies (3 per kingdom), two senators appointed by the emperor to represent the Federal Capital Territory of Daik, and 40 additional senators appointed by the king. The head of government is known as the Pardana Mantri, or Prime Minister; he is selected by the Maharaza from the Sabha Zalata to serve a five-year term, and can be selected again to serve a second five-year term. While theoretically the Prime Minister can be any member of the Sabha Zalata, in practice he is generally the leader of the party or coalition which wins the most seats in that year's elections. The current Prime Minister is Suria Sam͂karaputra, who is currently serving his second term. If, at any time, the Sabha Zalata expresses "No Confidence" in the Prime Minister's government, he is dismissed and new nationwide elections are called. This has only happened once in Xrivizaja's history, however.

Administrative Divisions

Xrivizaja is divided into numerous kingdoms (karazán) and one empire (kamaharazán), each of which make up the mandala of the State of Xrivizaja. These are:

  • Empire of Uzom͂ Tana× and Palembam͂: Largest kingdom in Xrivizaja and also the most politically powerful. Consists of *here*'s Sultanate of Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, the Riau and Bangka-Belitung Islands, and Riau, Lampung, and South Sumatera Provinces in Indonesia. Capital at Uzom͂ Tana× Bá×ru; the largest city is Palembam͂.
  • Kingdom of Malayu: Oldest kingdom in Xrivizaja. Consists of Jambi Province in *here*’s Indonesia. Capital at Zambi.
  • Kingdom of Pagarujum͂: Ruled by the Minam͂kabau ethnic group. Consists of *here*'s Indonesian provinces of West Sumatera and Bengkulu (excluding Bencoolen City). Capital at Pagarujum͂; the largest city is Padam͂.
  • Kingdom of Pánnai: Consists of Labuhan Batu, North Labuhan Batu, South Labuhan Batu, Padang Lawas, North Padang Lawas, Padangsidempuan City, Mandailing Natal, and South Tapanuli Regencies in *here*'s North Sumatera province in Indonesia. Capital at Pánnai.
  • Kingdom of Aru: Consists of the remaining regencies of Indonesia's North Sumatera Province *here*. Capital at Medan.
  • Kingdom of Keda×: Consists of *here*'s State of Kedah in Malaysia. Capital at Alor Star; largest city is Sun̊ai Patani.
  • Kingdom of Singhapura: Smallest kingdom in Xrivizaja, but also the most densely populated. Consists of *here*'s Singapore.
  • Kingdom of Selan̊or: Consists of *here*'s Sultanate of Selangor. Capital at Klam͂. Largest city is Kuala Lumpur.
  • Kingdom of Gám͂ga Nagara: Second-smallest kingdom in Xrivizaja, and centre of the Xrivizajan navy. Consists of *here*'s former Straits Settlement of Dinding. Capital at Beruas. Largest city is Xri Mánzum͂.
  • Kingdom of Perak: Consists of the rest of the rest of *here*'s modern-day Sultanate of Perak in Malaysia. Capital and largest city at Ipo×.
  • Kingdom of Trem͂gánu: Consists of *here*'s State of Terengganu in Malaysia. Capital at Kuála Trem͂ganu.
  • Kingdom of Kalantan: Consists of *here*'s State of Kelantan in Malaysia. Capital at Kota Bharu.

In addition, Xrivizaja also contains five ‘’tributary states’’, which are four European territories required to pay annual monetary tribute to Xrivizaja and whose citizens hold dual citizenship of the European power and Xrivizaja, plus one state jointly tributary between Mÿqan̊ Ðaij and Xrivizaja and whose citizens are likewise dual citizens of each country:

  • Territory of Malacca: A Portuguese colony, originally ceded in 1511 and later semi-integrated back into Xrivizaja via the mandala system. Consists of *here*’s State of Melaka.
  • Territory of Bencoolen: An English colony since 1685. Consists of Bencoolen City and some of the surrounding area.
  • Sultanate of Atjeh: Colonised by the Dutch. Only majority-Islamic state in Xrivizaja. Consists of *here*’s Province of Aceh in Indonesia.
  • Territory of Penang: A Scottish colony, first settled in 1786 in exchange for military aid against the Ðaijs. Consists of *here*'s State of Penang.
  • Nagara Xri Ðharmaráza: A state tributary to both Mÿqan̊ Ðaij and Xrivizaja, though it is mostly internally autonomous, has its own king (albeit said king is the king of Mÿqan̊ Ðaij), and even forms its own sub-mandala with its own vassal states. Capital at Nagara Xri Ðharmaráza; largest city is Hád Jai. Consists of *here*'s Southern Thailand.

There is also the Federal Capital Territory of Daik on the isle of Lim͂ga, where the Xrivizajan federal government and parliament are housed.

History

Main page: History of Xrivizaja

Xrivizaja has a long and convoluted history, as befits a country with its lifespan. Beginning in the 7th century, Xrivizaja developed around the city of Palembang in present-day Uzon Tanah, and it soon grew to encompass the Malayan peninsula, Sumatera, Bornei, Butuán and Tondó in modern-day Bornei-Filipinas, and Java in present-day Mazapahit. The empire was a centre of Buddhist learning and thought, and many Buddhist scholars such as I-Ching and the famed monk Atixa (Atisha in English transliteration) visited Xrivizaja to take advantage of its Buddhist scholarship. At the beginning of the second millennium, Xrivizaja was able to fend off pirate attacks from the Hindu Tamil Chola empire, but found itself weakened and vulnerable, losing its eastern vassals and experiencing a decline in its military power. The empire reached its nadir in 1377, when Mazapahitian naval vessels attacked and were able to conquer Sumatera, including the Xrivizajan capital of Palembang. However, thanks to the quick thinking of the Xrivizajan emperor, the kingdom was able to shift its centre of power to Melaka across the strait, and eventually managed to regain Sumatera from Mazapahit when it too entered its own period of decline. Although the Portuguese forced Xrivizaja out of its capital of Melaka in 1511, the country stayed strong thanks to Chinese support and later treaties with the Iberian powers in the Philippines and Malacca.

By the 19th century, Xrivizaja had developed into a prosperous trade empire, with a number of European enclaves under its vassalage. However, by then its government was was becoming aware of the potential for power-hungry Europeans to overwhelm its mandala and turn into a vassal state. In order to keep the country's economic and political status, the emperor of Xrivizaja began to move his country towards the production of new material goods in high demand by Europeans, such as tin, gold, rubber, and oil. Chinese workers began to be brought in in large numbers to work in industry and ports, substantially boosting Xrivizaja's economic fortunes, but also resulting in the creation of ethnic tensions between the dominant Malays, Bataks and Minangkabaus and the newcomers. These tensions came to a head in 1939 when Xrivizaja was invaded by China, and led to widespread Sinophobia after the war. Although ethnic tensions nearly ripped the country apart in the early 1950s, the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a system for ensuring racial harmony allowed the country to consolidate its status in the region and construct a modern nation-state. Today, Xrivizaja is one of the most developed economies in Southeast Asia, being a major oil producer and manufacturing centre as well as hosting a growing financial and IT sector.

Geography

Borders

North: Xri Ðharrmaráza, Mÿqan̊ Ðaij
Northwest: Atjeh.
West: Bornei-Filipinas.
Southwest: Mazapahit.
South: Mazapahit.
Southeast: Indian Ocean.
East: Indian Ocean.
Northeast: Mÿqan̊ Ðaij, Gulf of Sajam.

Economy

Xrivizaja's economy is highly diversified and based on trade, natural resources, and finances. Since the beginning of the Xrivizajan empire, trade has been one of the essential cornerstones of its economy, and today the port city of Singapura remains one of the busiest ports in the world. Since the discovery of oil in Sumatra in 1885, petroleum and natural gas production has also served as a major economic cornerstone of Xrivizaja, although the country has endeavoured to reduce its dependence on oil and diversify its economy into other sectors. Although its importance has diminished with the advent of synthetic petroleum rubber, natural rubber was one of the original cash crops grown widely in Xrivizaja, and today the country remains the largest producer of natural rubber in the world, beating out Equador and neighbouring Mazapahit. In recent years, as health concerns over animal fats and traditional vegetable oils have risen in the Western world, Xrivizaja has also emerged as the pre-eminent producer of palm oil, although the industry has proved environmentally very destructive and regulations have been undertaken to curb its environmental impact, including widespread ecosystem devastation and noxious smogs from burning fires that choke the air in Xrivizajan cities.

While Xrivizaja was not hit as hard by the Oil Crisis of 1973 as some Arab countries were owing to a more diversified economy, it nevertheless suffered an economic downturn from the drop in oil prices. Realising that the crisis indicated Xrivizaja could not depend on natural resources to consistently support its economy, then-Prime Minister Matahari Budiputra implemented the New Economic Policy. The aims of the policy was to shift the Xrivizajan economy away from dependence on resource extraction and crop cultivation and towards advanced industry, such as car manufacturing, finance and electronics. The government began to invest heavily in car makers such as Phaeton, and encouraged Xrivizajans to start their own businesses in the electronics and heavy manufacturing industries. In addition, the government also encouraged the development of major cities such as Singapura, Medan and Palembam͂ as centres of the services industry, including finance and human resources. Protectionist policies were also installed in order to encourage Xrivizajan ownership of businesses, such as requiring that businesses listed on Xrivizajan stock exchanges have at least 30% ownership by Malays and other native Xrivizajan ethnicities, and overall 70% Xrivizajan ownership. The policies proved to be relatively successful, largely allowing Xrivizaja to advance beyond plantation agriculture and resource extraction, but their success was hampered somewhat by the stance of economic protectionism, and oil, palm plantations, and tin mining remain significant sectors of the Xrivizajan economy. Since the election of Suria Sam͂karaputra, the protectionist measures have been liberalised somewhat, with required Malay ownership reduced to only 12.5% and required Xrivizajan ownership to less than half.

In recent years Xrivizaja has become popular as a tourist destination, particularly to its historic Buddhist temples in Sumatra and the cosmopolitan, fast-paced nature of cities such as Sin̊apura and Kuala Lumpur.

Transportation

Roads and boats serve as the main methods of transportation in Xrivizaja. Xrivizajan oil is plentiful and widely available, allowing for gas prices to be fairly low, but roads are heavily congested and travel times, especially during rush hour, can be excruciatingly slow. To speed up Xrivizajan roadways, Prime Minister Sam͂karaputra has announced among other measures to curb traffic congestion the upgrade of the Xrivizajan road network to standards closer to the German autobahn, including added express lanes and more grade separation. A network of high-speed catamarans serves the various islands and ports of Xrivizaja, transporting people between Sumatra and the Malayan peninsula and also to the various islands within the Empire of Uzom͂ Tana×-Palembam͂ as well as neighboring Bornei and Mazapahit. The major hubs of the network are in Sin̊apura, Malacca, Penang, Palembam͂, Kota Lampum͂ and Medan. These high-speed ferries are often considered to be the best way to traverse maritime Xrivizaja, as airships may only make stops at the major ports and cities. Airship travel is quite important in Xrivizaja; airships are generally considered to be the fastest way to travel between major cities, including going from Sumatra to the Malayan Peninsula and vice versa. The Kuála Lumpur-Sin̊apura route is among the busiest airship lines in East Asia. Sin̊apura Air Lines is one of the most famous airship companies in the world, widely renowned for its world-class services up to and including separate sleeper rooms for passengers on its largest airships. In recent years Malacca has also established itself as a major low-cost airship port thanks to the efforts of Kristang businessman Antônio Fernandes and his airline "Air Asia", which has additionally experimented with aeroplanes to provide express service on its busiest routes.

Xrivizaja's rail network Karetápi Tana× Xrivizaja, while fairly extensive, is not as developed compared to the rail networks in other countries such as Japan or Futainan. The system is mainly geared towards freight transport and commuter rail, with most of the network being unelectrified and services being rather slow. However, investments have been made to electrify the commuter networks in cities such as Medan, Sin̊apura, Penang and Kuála Lumpur, and an electric train service has been instituted between Sin̊apura and Penang, with plans to potentially extend it into Xri Ðharrmaráza. A high-speed rail line between Sin̊apura and Kuála Lumpur is currently under construction and expected to open before 2020, as is a second electric train line intended to connect the west and east coasts of the Malayan Peninsula.

Culture

Like Myqan Daij, Xrivizaja uses the Buddhist calendar for all official dates, but unlike Myqan Daij primarily dates them to the Xaka era. Hence, 10 May 2017 (Vesak or Buddha's Birthday) is 1 Vaisakha 1939 Xaka in Xrivizaja.

Languages

Malay is the official language of Xrivizaja, used in government documents, media and in everyday life by the dominant Bumiputra ethnic group. However, many indigenous languages (often closely related to Malay) are spoken in the various subregional states, though they do not usually have official status. Malay is written in the Malay script, a modern derivative of the Tamil Pallava alphabet related to Old Kawi and the Khmær alphabet. However, in southern Uzom͂ Tanah the Rencom͂ alphabet is frequently used to write Malay, in addition to its dialects. The primary language among the Chinese community is Hokkien and related dialects, and it is the dialect most often taught in Xrivizajan schools as a result. However, Hakka and Cantonese are also widely spoken among other sectors of the Chinese population. Thai is spoken widely in Nagara Xri Dharrmaraza and in the northern kingdoms of the Malayan Peninsula.

Religion

The state religion is Buddhism, although freedom of religion is guaranteed in the 1957 constitution. Several different varieties of Buddhism are practiced; the dominant form is known as Indonesian Esoteric Buddhism. It is a Tantric Mahayana sect related in part to Japanese Xingon Buddhism, and indeed it appears to have served as a prominent influence on both Tantric and non-Tantric sects in East Asia. The Ðaij minority in the north and some Malays practice Theravada Buddhism, a rather different form of Buddhism than the Tantric and Mahayana traditions practiced by other ethnicities in Xrivizaja. They are sometimes derogatorily referred to as "Hinayana" by the Mahayana majority, although this is considered highly offensive and is generally discouraged in modern Xrivizajan society. Many Buddhists both Chinese and Malay also follow non-Tantric forms of Buddhism, some of which were introduced through the immigration of Chinese workers In addition, in recent years new Buddhist sects such as the Japanese Sóca Gaccai have been gaining in influence among the Mahayanist population, particularly as Xrivizaja has established strong trade links with the Empire of Japan. A significant minority of the population, making up about 15% of Malays and a significantly larger percentage of Chinese are Assyrian Christians. They generally follow the Borneian Church, especially recent immigrants from Bornei-Filipinas. Many Chinese, however, instead belong to the Religion of Light. Catholicism is generally strong only in the European enclaves, particularly Malacca, as well as among recent Filipino immigrants. The dominant form of Catholicism in Xrivizaja is Roman Catholicism following the Isidoran Rite, owing to the strong presence of the Malayo-Portuguese Kristang minority in Malacca and other port cities such as Singapura and Penang as well as Filipino immigrants; even in the British enclaves it is generally the dominant church. A relatively small but prosperous Muslim minority known as the Jawi Peranakan exists mostly in trading ports on the Malay peninsula, following a semi-syncretized form of the Shafi'i school of Sunni Islam. Although only making up about 1% of the population, the Jawi Peranakan are well respected and admired for their work ethic, economic contributions and loyalty to the nation, and their women are often considered especially beautiful by normal Xrivizajan men. Chinese religions such as the Confucian Church, Taoism and Manesianity are practiced by a significant minority of the Chinese population, which is otherwise mostly Mahayana Buddhist or Assyrian Christian. Many Chinese practicing traditional religions, however, declared their religion as Buddhism when they arrived in Xrivizaja in order to better fit in. The Bataks mainly follow their own traditional animist religion, which has received federal protection from both Buddhist and Christian missionaries by the Xrivizajan government. Majapahitan Hinduism is practiced mostly by Javanese immigrants as well as some Buginese and Lampungese; however, many of them have converted to Mahayana Buddhism owing to political and social pressures.

Starting with the establishment of the constitution in 1957, Xrivizaja has had several religions designated "protected religions". These religions are usually those considered ancestral to the various nations within Xrivizaja and an inalienable part of their cultural identity. These consist of: Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Assyrian Christianity, Sunni Islam as practiced by the Jawi Peranakan, Batak animism and the traditional religion of the Oram Asli. A request from the Ðaij community led to the split of Buddhism into two protected groups for the purposes of the protected religion system. Protected religions are officially protected from proselytisation by other religious sects, including other protected religions; however, conversion in the context of mixed marriages and certain other situations is allowed. Apostasy from one of the protected religions is generally banned, although in practice most people do not renounce their religion owing to Buddhism's general quasi-atheism. While the protected religion system has helped safeguard Xrivizaja from potentially disruptive religious occurrences, notably the attempt by Saudi Arabians to export puritanical Wahhabi Islam to the Jawi Peranakan during the Oil Crisis of 1895 Xaka, it has been criticised by liberals for its disallowance of conversion outside of limited circumstances and its general strict setting of Xrivizajan religious demographics. Others have also derided the protected religion system as being disproportionately weighted towards Buddhism and against Chinese religions, which are not afforded protected status, and some have even gone as far as to suggest the system is little more than an attempt by the ruling UMNO government to keep Xrivizaja's demographics rigid and constant.

See also

See Southeast Asia in Ill Bethisad for more information.

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