Great Oriental War
|Name(s):||Great Oriental War|
|Start of hostilities:||1937|
|End of hostilities:||1949|
|Winning side:||Losing side:|
|Related conflicts:||Second Sino-Japanese War,|
Japanese Civil War,
Second Great War
|Major consequences:||Breakup of Chinese Empire|
Prelude to War
Beginning in the late 1890's, China sought to strengthen itself, modernizing its army and centralizing administration over its provinces and tributaries. This was largely a result of China's defeat at the hands of Japan in the Sino-Japanese War. In 1920, China invaded the Japanese vassal of Corea as well as Taiwan, which had been annexed to Japan itself. Lùquiù was, for the time being, left, due to its historic friendship with the Federated Kingdoms.
China continued to look for new opportunities for growth, and saw their opportunity in the war between Russia and the Soviet Socialist Republic of Siberia. Forming an alliance with Russia, China invaded the SSRS from the south. It quickly crumbled under the dual attack. However, China betrayed Russia by retaining the territory, leading to the Sino-Russian War (1934-1938). Russia regained part of their territory, while the portion retained by China was given nominal sovereignty as the Imperial Soviet Republic of Northern Manchuria.
Meanwhile, during the 20's, China pushed westward, reasserting their control of Tibet, and southward, into Siam. This resulted in protests from the Austronesian League, which China ignored. Finally, in 1933, the Chinese attacked Tòquiò (modern-day Edo), placing their ally, Prince Mitxi, on the throne as Emperor Xòwa. The League could no longer ignore China's imperialism, after the invasion of a crucial ally, and slapped sanctions on China, as well as building up their forces in Naha, Lùquiù.
Australasia, as a retaliatory action, started by invading Corea from Naha. The attack was at first, successful, mostly due to bad communication between Kieñseñ and Beijing. However, by the winter, the Chinese army drove Australasia out of Corea. Japan initially assisted China, but soon dropped out due to their Civil War.
Australasia fell back to the Filipinas. The Chinese, after invading Xrivizaja, were now pushing on Mazapahit. Australasia sent forces to aid the Mazapahitans, another ANJAC member and member of the Austronesian League. This mission was a success, and the Chinese were prevented from gaining any ground in Mazapahit, because of an inability to attack from the Filipinas. Australasia then proceeded to push up through Xrivizaja, then heading up through Siam. ANJAC forces held their ground in Burma, but it was a stalemate.
For much of the war, little progress was made by either side. By 1943, China was using biological weapons against the Australasians and their allies. These weapons had initially been tested in occupied areas, starting with Corea and Taiwan, against captured rebels, and later, against actual cities and towns.
By 1946, with the aid of German scientists, captured after the European War, a joint Atomic Research Project was set up in mainland Australia by the Federated Kingdoms. In an attempt to force the Chinese to give in, a bomb was dropped on Xi'an. Nine hundred thousand people were killed, but the Chinese held firm. The stalemate continued for another three years. In 1949, and on the brink of giving in, ANJAC High Command made the decision to drop four atom bombs on Beijing, in a last effort to win the war. The whole city, and six million people, were killed, including the whole Imperial family. It was the end of the Qing dynasty, and the end of China.
China fell apart into anarchy with the loss of their leadership, as various generals attempted to proclaim themselves as the rulers of China, and secessionist movements, long repressed, exploded among the minorities. Australasian and allied troops marched in and proclaimed an Occupation Authority.
They made Tibet independent again and unified Mongolia. The rest was returned, essentially, to its state before the war, apart from China itself. In an effort to prevent China from causing any more trouble, it was split up, according to language, reasoning that it is harder to unify countries with separate languages than countries with a single language.
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THE THREE-SIDED BALANCE OF POWER (1890s - 1917)
During this time, the entire region was characterized by an ever-shifting struggle between China, Russia, and Japan for superiority.
1894-5 First Sino-Japanese War (J victory), J takes Corea & Liuquiu
1896-7 Catipunan Revolt in Filipinas ends in cease-fire
1898 Filipinas peacefully declares independence.
1901 Commonwealth of Australasia
1902 United Borneian-Filipino state formed
1903-5 First Russo-Japanese War (J victory), J takes Alaska, Roxia, Nittato, Chukotka
1910-1 Second Russo-Japanese War (R victory), R retakes Asian territory
1912 East Asian Federation formed
1914 First Great War begins, but few direct effects felt in Asia.
CHINA RISING (1917-1934)
Both Russia and Japan suffered from internal strife, leaving China as Top Nation in Asia and the Pacific. China flexed its muscles again and again during this time, little suspecting that Russia would rebound, or that two new Powers, Australasia and Bornei-Filipinas, would soon challenge its supremacy.
1917 Russian Revolution, start of civil war
1919 First Great War ends. White Army seizes power in Russia. Insurrection in Filipinas; Castile finally recognizes its independence.
1920 China invades Corea, secures change in Japanese succession. Japanese protectorate over Henua ended. Trotskyists establish Socialist Soviet Republic of Siberia (SSRS).
1921 Russian satellite established in Mongolia. Bhutan closes its border with Tibet.
1922 Emperor Taixo poisoned
1923 SNOR founded. Guereintia established.
1924 Secret treaty between Russia and China: Chinese aid in reconquering SRSS in return for land cession from Russia
1925 China breaks treaty and occupies SRSS as Northern Manchuria. Republic established in Castile; Castilian Territories retained by Castilian Kingdom (overseas).
1926 China takes direct control of Tibet. Lo, Nepal, and Sikkim close their borders.
1928 Micronesian Confederation formed. Japan supports Filipino occupation of remaining Castilian territories, favorably revises tributary relationship.
1929 Austronesian League founded. Second Sino-Japanese War begins in Corea.
1930 Mutual defence agreement between China and Turkestan
1931 Russia invades Turkestan, China intervenes to drive Russia out
1933 China invades Japan, wins war, Emperor Xowa put on Japanese throne
THE MULTI-FRONT WAR (1934-1940)
The "Great Oriental War" began in 1937, but both the name and the start date reflect the British point of view. In fact, the conflagration broke out in 1934 between China and Russia, and European politics led Russia to switch sides (before switching sides again, later).
1934 Sino-Russian War begins
1935 Austronesian League summit collapses; ANJAC founded
1936 Gossartige Allianz founded between Russia, Germany, and Greece
1937 China attacks Sednir, start of Great Oriental War. Australasia attacks Corea; driven out, falls back to Filipinas. Unrest in Japan. Vissiarionov in power in Russia.
1938 Germany mediates end to Sino-Russian War; Russia remains in occupation of Siberian land; "Imperial Soviet" government set up in Northern Manchuria. China occupies Luqiu and Xrivijaya.
1939 China attacks Mazapahit; ANJAC forces resist. In Europe: Start of Second Great War.
ALLIED COUNTERATTACK (1940-1942)
1940 ANJAC drives China out of Mazapahit. In Europe: Germany occupies Batavia. British kingdoms and Germany agree to a cease-fire.
1941 China withdraws from Xrivizaya into Siam. Fighting spreads to Burma. China attacks cities in Kingsland. Australasia declares martial law in Great Corridor Territory. In Europe: Collapse of the Danubian Confederation damages Ruso-German alliance and thus the precarious friendship between Russia and China. Germany invades France; beginning of French Stalemate.
The main front in SE Asia stabilized. China began occupying a series of islands in an attempt to reach the Australian mainland. Japan descended into civil war.
1942 Japanese civil war begins; anti-Chinese factions revolt. Ezo declares independence with Russian support. Fighting in Burma reaches stalemate. China occupies Micronesia and Marianas in attempt to outflank Filipine islands. Borderland War: China and Ethiopia occupy Russian-allied Buganda.
1943 British and Germans again at war. ANJAC HQ moved to Brisbane. Ruso-German alliance collapses and Germany invades eastern Europe. China deploys biological weapons. China invades New Guinea and Fijian Melanesia. Ralik Islands invade Ratak. Fighting between Russian and Chinese forces in Manchuria.
1944 "Heroic Defeat" in Fiji. China advances further in the Pacific.
1945 Scandinavian Realm enters war in Europe; Iberian Pact enters war in Africa
1946 Tokyo captured by rebels loyal to Cumazawa. Weapons program in Australia develops atomic bomb, which is dropped on Xi'an. Chinese drawdown in Africa. Russia confirms alliance with Allied Powers and ANJAC. Russia invades Turkestan, fall of Qurultai.
1947 Tibet and Nanchang declare independence. Battle of Samoa. Ralik Islands annex Ratak. End of fighting in eastern Africa.
Allied forces pushed back in the Pacific and ultimately attacked Beijing. China disintegrated as local regions became independent states. The situation stabilized in Japan, but pent-up tensions flung victorious B-F into a chaotic era.
1948 ANJAC advances through Pacific islands, drive Chinese forces off New Guinea. High point of rebel control in Japan. Xowa acknowledges Kingdom of Marshall Islands. Russia invades Uyguristan. Government of National Unity in Turkestan. In Europe: Batavia liberated, French Stalemate broken, Visby Conference, Iberian Pact declares war on Germany
1949 Atomic attack on Beijing. Chinese separatist movements rise up. Australasia/ANJAC forces, with Russia, occupy much of China. British forces occupy Malabar Coast. Independence for Chukotka, condominium in Primorye. Tokuz Okuz rises to power in Uyguristan. Malucos declares independence. Papua made an independent Commonwealth Realm. End of fighting in Europe.
1950 ANJAC occupation ends in Canton. Xinjing founded near Beijing. Pañghulo Amado Tajuddin assassinated in Filipinas. Nam Viet imperial family returns from exile, empire restored.
1951 Xowa forces recapture Tokyo. Emperor agrees to abdicate. Aotearoa joins Australasia. FNRF rebellion begins in Filipinas, with Russian support. Jalan Quyrat-uli declares himself Ilxan.
1952 China formally carved up; ANJAC/Australasian forces leave. Chinese League founded. Emperor Xowa abdicates in favor of Saisei. Fiji restored to independence. FNRF Attacks in Filipinas. Military takeover of Tibet.
The modern Japanese Empire took shape, Bornei-Filipinas broke apart, and the diplomatic situation shifted to cope with the rise of Russia, the fall of China, and the end of the wartime alliance structure.
1953 New constitution in Japan.
1954 FNRF revolt in B-F put down with Australasian support. Failed coup in Filipinas. Japanese constitution goes into effect. All links severed between Japan and Alyaska.
1955 Tibetan War: Tibet occupies parts of Nanhanguo and Uyguristan.
1956 B-F, Xrivijaya, Majapahit, Australasia form anti-Russian defence pact. Japan gives full independence to Kanawiki, Nittato, Kiripati, Toga, and Micronesia. Toga withdraws from Micronesian Confederation and joins Commonwealth. Japanese troops intervene in Corea and replace failed provisional government.
1957-1959 Carlos Garcia y Polistico's administration in B-F. "Filipinas Primero" policy. Beginning of Countrymen Party rule in Kingsland.
1959-1960 Claro M. Recto's nationalist administration in B-F.
1960 Recto assassinated. New constitution in Corea restores personal union with Japan.
1961 Partido Raquiat Bornei (secessionist, communist) voted into power.
1963 Armed rebellion in Bornei.
1964 Marcos seizes power in Filipinas; Bornei and Filipinas separate. Another new constitution in Japan.
MAJOR BLOCS AND ALLIANCES DURING THE ORIENTAL WAR
- Japan (Xowa)
- Myqan Daij
- Nam Viet
- Commonwealth (Australasia, Papua, Aotearoa, Cambrian Polynesia, Calcutta,
- Bombay, Madras, FK)
- Aotearoa's dependencies (Niue, Samoa, Kuke, Otaro)
- Nam Viet (in exile)
- Castilian Kingdom
- Japan (pretender)
- Archipelagic Front + Mainland Front (SE Asia)
- Oceanic Front
- New Guinea Front
- Northern Front (China-Russia)
- Turkestan Front
- Malabar Coast
- Attacks on Australia, Filipinas, China