Napoleon III

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Napoleon III (1808-1873) was the cousin of Napoleon II, the son of Louis Bonaparte, younger brother of Napoleon I. His mother was the daughter of Napoleon's first wife, making him also Napoleon II's step-nephew, and Napoleon I's step-grandson. Napoleon III succeeded his cousin as Co-Prince of Andorra upon the later's death from tuberculosis in 1832.

Co-Prince Napoleon III bid his time in Andorra until popular resentment in France led to the overthrow of Louis-Philippe, at which point his supporters arranged for the declaration of the Second Empire, with Napoleon as its Emperor. From that point until 1870, he ruled over both Andorra and France, as well as Luxemburg, from Paris.

Flag of the Luxemburger Republic (1848)

King Louis-Phillippe had made no claim to the Grand Ducal throne of Luxemburg, not being its heir under the laws of Luxemburg or the Holy Roman Empire. However, the French government continued to administer it as a de facto French departement, albeit one with no representation in Paris. Prussia had exploited the Luxemburgers' frustration by encouraging uprisings like the one in 1848 declaring a Lëtzebuerger Republik.

Napoleon III sought to prevent more of this by restoring some of the autonomy Luxemburg had enjoyed under Napoleon I. The Parliament was again allowed to meet, but much of the administration still came from Paris. National opinion had turned decidedly against France. With Prussia ascendant within Germany, King Wilhelm began to pressure Napoleon to remove French troops from the Grand Duchy and restore it to its "rightful sovereignty". This was one of the causes of the Franco-Prussian War, which resulted in Napoleon's overthrow and, in 1871, the permanent separation of Luxemburg from France.

In 1870, his Empire was overthrown, and the Republic restored. Like his predecessor, Napoleon was permitted to retain the title of Co-Prince of Andorra. He died three years later, passing the Principality to his son, Napoleon IV.

Preceded by:
Emperor of France
Succeeded by:
Restored Republic
Grand Duke of Luxemburg
Preceded by:
Napoleon II
Co-Prince of Andorra
Succeeded by:
Napoleon IV
Grand duchy luxembourg arms.jpg   Grand Dukes of Luxemburg  
House of Bonaparte
Napoleon I | Napoleon II | Napoleon III
House of Orange-Nassau
Wëllem I
House of Nassau-Weilburg
Aedul | Wëllem II
House of Nassau-Weilburg-Kastelnow
Änder | Néckel | Tréis | Haedrana