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Catalan is the co-official and most spoken language of the countries of Aragon and Riu de L'Argent. It belongs to the Occitano-Romance family of languages, and is closely related to Narbonosc. The language also has a slightly more distant relationship with Aragonese and to a lesser extent Castilian and Portuguese.
Catalan pronunciation resembles that of the neighbouring Romance languages; however, there are several distinct traits. A notable difference from Narbonosc is the lack of nasalised or (in most dialects) front rounded vowels.
a: [a] in stressed syllables, [ə] otherwise
à: [a]; only appears in stressed syllables
e: [ɛ] or [e] in stressed syllables, [ə] otherwise; not pronounced at the ends of infinitives
è: [ɛ]; only appears in stressed syllables
é: [e]; only appears in stressed syllables
i, í: [i]
o: [ɔ] or [o] in stressed syllables, [u] otherwise
ò: [ɔ]; only appears in stressed syllables
ó: [o]; only appears in stressed syllables
u, ú; [u] as a vowel, [w] if appearing after another vowel
y: [i] as a vowel, [j] if appearing after another vowel
c: [k], [s] before i or e
cu: [kw], [k] before i or e
ch: [x], [k], or [ʃ], depending on situation; [tʃ] in some loanwords
dj: [dʒ]; mostly used in loanwords
dz: [dz]; mostly used in loanwords
g: [g], [ʒ] before i or e
gu: [gw], [g] before i or e
k: [k], mostly appears in loanwords
kh: [x] or [k], rare
ll: [ʎ], intervocalically [j] in dialects with iodizació
n: [n]; not pronounced at the end of a word unless under rules of liaison
qu: [kw], [k] before i or e
r: [r], trilled, not pronounced at the end of a word unless under rules of liaison (except for infinitives)
s: [s], [z] between vowels
t: [t], not pronounced at the end of a word unless under rules of liaison
tll: [ʎ:] or [j:]
ts: [ts]; mostly found in loanwords
tx: [tʃ]; mostly found in loanwords
w: [w], only used in loanwords
x: [ʃ]; [ks] or [gz] in loanwords
Double consonants are always pronounced as geminates (lengthened), except for (ll) which is pronounced as [ʎ]. Only liquids can be geminated. Geminate r is quite common, other geminates much less so. Geminates never appear at the beginning of words.
Voiced stops and fricatives are devoiced at the end of words in Catalan, like in the Gallo-Italic languages, or Catalan and Occitan *here*.
Like Narbonosc, Catalan has rules of liaison, but these are limited to the consonants [t], [r] and [n]. Normally silent at the ends of words, if followed by a vowel or h they are pronounced as normal. Geminate r and n are always pronounced at the ends of syllables, but do not usually occur.
Stress follows the same rules as in *here*'s Catalan or in Nissard Occitan: stress can fall on the final, penultimate, or antepenultimate syllable.
Catalan grammar is similar to that of Narbonosc, with the most notable differences being in verb tenses.
Catalan has two classes of articles, the definite and indefinite. These change according to number and gender. Unlike most Romance languages, the definite article comes from the Latin determiner "ipse'," and not from the usual Latin word "ille," meaning "that"/"those." The forms are referred to as "articles salats". This phenomenon is also found in Sardinian & many varieties of Narbonosc.
|singular||es (s')||sa (s')|
|plural||es , ets||as, ses|
As in *here*'s Spanish or in Narbonosc, there is also a neuter article, "o", which is used to turn adjectives or verbs into abstract nouns. In Western Catalan, like in Aragonese, the masculine article "e" is replaced by "o", and the plural forms are masculine "os" and feminine "as". In some dialects, particularly those of the Balearic islands and Northern Catalonia, the elided form is instead "s'" like in regional variants of the Provençal dialect of Narbonósc and Sardinian; this points to the article's derivation from Latin ipsum in these dialects.
Like in the Gallo-Italic languages or Portuguese, Catalan requires a definite article before names. However, a distinct form is used, shown in this table:
|en (n')||na (n')|
de + definite article: de s', desa, des, desas
a + definite article: a s', a sa, aes, a sas
a + indefinite article: an, ana, ans, anes
per + definite article: pes, pesa, pels, pesas
per + indefinite article: pen, pena, pens, penes
en, in + definite article: en l', enes, enas
en, in + indefinite article: nun, nuna, nuns, nunes
amb + definite article: amb so, amb sa, amb s', amb sos, amb ses
|Indo-European - Italic languages|
|Latin / Romance Languages||Faliscan †|
|Langues d'Oil||Langues d'Oua||Langues d'Oc|