Hungary is divided into 45 castle-counties (vármegye, pl. vármegyék), which are further subdivided into ridings (járás, pl. járások). The following is a list of the 45 castle-counties (in CAPS), with their capital cities in brackets following; beneath each castle-county name is a list of the ridings in that county. Ridings are named after their capital city, unless the capital city is noted in brackets following the riding's name.
|1||MOSON||Magyaróvár||Magyaróvár - Nezsider - Rajka|
|2||POZSONY||Pozsony||Dunaszerdahely - Galánta - Pozsony - Somorja - Szenc|
|3||NYITRA||Nyitra||Érsekújvár (Nagysurány) - Nyitra - Vágsellye|
|4||BARS||Léva||Léva - Verebély|
|5||GYÕR||Gyõr||Puszta (Gyõrszentmárton) - Sokoróalja (Tét) - Tószigetcsilizköz (Gyõr)|
|6||KOMÁROM||Komárom||Csallóköz (Nemesócsa) - Gesztes (Nagyigmánd) - Tata - Udvard (Ógyalla)|
|7||ESZTERGOM||Esztergom||Esztergom - Párkány|
|8||HONT||Ipolyság||Ipolynyék - Ipolyság - Szob - Vámosmikola|
|9||NÓGRÁD||Balassagyarmat||Balassagyarmat - Losonc - Nógrád (Rétság) - Salgótarján - Szécsény - Szirák|
|10||GÖMÖR-KISHONT||Rimaszombat||Feled - Rimaszombat|
|11||HEVES||Eger||Eger - Gyöngyös - Hatvan - Heves - Pétervására - Tiszafüred|
|12||BORSOD||Miskolc||Edelény - Mezõcsát - Mezõkövesd - Miskolc - Ózd - Sajószentpéter|
|13||ABAÚJ-TORNA||Abaújszántó||Cserehátt (Szepsi) - Gönc (Abaújszántó) - Szikszó - Torna|
|14||ZEMPLÉN||Sátoraljaújhely||Bodrogköz (Királyhelmec) - Sárospatak - Sátoraljaújhely - Tokaj - Szerencs|
|15||SZABOLCS||Nyíregyháza||Dadai alsó (Tiszalök) - Dadai felsõ (Gáva) - Kisvárda - Ligetalja (Nyíracsád) - Nagykalló - Nyírbakta - Nyírbátor - Nyírbogdány (Kemecse) - Tisza (Mándok)|
|16||SZATMÁR||Szatmárnémeti||Avas (Avasújváros) - Csenger - Erdõd - Fehérgyarmat - Mátészalka - Nagybánya - Nagykároly - Nagysomkút - Szatmárnémeti - Szinérváralja - Záhony|
|17||SZOLNOK-DOBOKA||Dés||Bethlen - Csákigorbó - Dés - Kápolnokmonostor - Kékes - Magyarlápos - Nagyilonda - Szamosújvár|
|18||SZILÁGY||Zilah||Kraszna - Szilágycseh - Szilágysomlyó - Tasnád - Zilah - Zsibó|
|19||KOLOZS||Kolozsvár||Bánffyhunyad - Gyalu - Hídalmás - Kolozsvár - Mezõörményes - Mocs - Nádasmenti (Magyarvista) - Nagysármás - Teke|
|20||MAROS-TORDA||Marosvásárhely||Marosi alsó (Marosvásárhely) - Marosi felsõ (Marosszentanna) - Nyárádszereda - Régeni alsó (Szászrégen) - Régeni felsõ (Magyarrégen)|
|21||CSÍK||Csíkszereda||Gyergyóremete - Felcsík (Csíkszereda) - Csíkszentsimon|
|22||UDVARHELY||Székelyudvarhely||Homoród (Okland) - Parajd - Székelykeresztúr - Udvarhely (Székelyudvarhely)|
|23||HÁROMSZÉK||Sepsiszentgyörgy||Miklósvár (Nagyajta) - Sepsi (Sepsiszentgyörgy)|
|24||BRASSÓ-FOGARAS||Földvár||Alvidék (Földvár) - Sárkány|
|25||NAGY-KÜKÜLLÕ||Segesvár||Kõhalom - Medgyes - Nagysink - Segesvár - Szentágota|
|26||KIS-KÜKÜLLÕ||Dicsõszentmárton||Dicsõszentmárton - Erzsébetváros - Hosszúaszó - Radnót|
|27||ALSÓ-FEHÉR||Nagyenyed||Abrudbánya - Vízakna - Gyulafehérvár - Alvinc - Balázsfalva - Kisenyed - Magyarigen - Marosújvár - Nagyenyed - Tövis - Verespatak|
|28||TORDA-ARANYOS||Torda||Alsójára - Felvinc - Marosludas - Topánfalva - Torda - Torockó|
|29||HUNYAD||Brád||Algyógy (Algyógyalfalu) - Brád - Déva (Marossolymos) - Körösbánya|
|30||ARAD||Új Arad [ex-Mikelaka]||Arad (Új Arad) - Borossebes - Elek - Kisjenõ - Nagyhalma - Világos - Csermõ - Bokszeg|
|31||BIHAR||Nagyvárad||Berettyóújfalu - Biharkeresztes - Cséffa - Derecske - Nagyszalonta - Sárrét - Belényes - Bél - Élesd - Érmihályfalva - Központ (Nagyvárad) - Magyarcséke - Margitta - Szalárd - Székelyhíd - Tenke - Vaskoh|
|32||HAJDÚ||Debrecen||Hajdúböszörmény - Hajdúszoboszló - Központ (Debrecen)|
|33||JÁSZ-NAGYKUN-SZOLNOK||Jászberény||Jászsági alsó (Jászapáti) - Jászsági felsõ (Jászberény) - Tiszai alsó (Tiszaföldvár) - Tiszai felsõ (Kunhegyes) - Tiszai közép (Törökszentmiklós)|
|34||BÉKÉS||Gyula||Békéscsaba - Békés - Gyoma - Gyula - Orosháza - Szarvas - Szeghalom|
|35||CSANÁD||Makó||Battonya - Központ (Makó) - Mezõkovácsháza - Nagylak|
|36||CSONGRÁD||Hódmezõvásárhely||Csongrád - Tiszántúl (Szentes) - Tiszáninnen (Kiskundorozsma)|
|37||FEJÉR||Székesfehérvár||Adony - Mór - Sárbogárd - Székesfehérvár - Vál|
|38||PEST-PILIS-SOLT-KISKUN||Budapest||Abony - Alsódabas - Aszód - Bia - Dunavecse - Gödöllõ - Kalocsa - Kiskörös - Kiskunfélegyháza - Kispest - Kunszentmiklós - Monor - Nagykáta - Pomáz - Ráckeve - Vác - Kiskunhalas - Kecskemét - Nagykörös - Cegléd - Újpest - Szentendre|
|39||TOLNA||Szekszárd||Dombóvár - Dunaföldvár (Paks) - Központ (Szekszárd) - Simontornya - Tamási|
|40||SOMOGY||Kaposvár||Barcs - Csurgó - Igal - Lengyeltót - Marcali - Nagyatád - Szigetvar - Tab|
|41||VARASD-KÖRÖS-VERÕCZE||Varasd||Varasd - Ludbreg - Szentgyörgy - Kapronca - Körös - Verõce|
|42||ZALA||Zalaegerszeg||Alsolendva - Balatonfüred - Csáktornya - Keszthely - Letenye - Nagykanizsa - Nova - Pacsa - Perlak - Sümeg - Tapolca - Zalaegerszeg - Zalaszentgrót|
|43||VESZPRÉM||Veszprém||Devecsér - Enying - Pápa - Veszprém - Zirc|
|44||VAS||Szombathely||Celldömölk - Felsõõr - Körmend - Kõszeg - Muraszombat - Németújvár - Sárvár - Szentgotthárd - Szombathely - Vasvár|
|45||SOPRON||Sopron||Csepreg - Csorna - Felsõpulya - Kapuvár - Kismarton - Nagymarton - Sopron|
The Hungarians - seven tribes made up of some eighty-odd clans of nomadic and pastoral people, numbering perhaps 100 to 200 thousand in all - had by 900 EC occupied all of the sparsely populated Carpathian Basin, where they had arrived in 895 led by Árpád, son of Álmos (and great-grandfather of Géza), whom they had elected supreme chief before setting out to cross the Carpathians from the east by the Verecke Pass. Until duke Géza took them in hand, the Hungarians had been given to a lifestyle that combined agriculture and animal husbandry with Viking-style raiding campaigns conducted on horses towards more settled lands to their west and south. In the first half of the 10th cc they had regularly raided westwards as far afield as today's France, until they suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of Otto the Great near Augsburg in 955. Raids towards Byzantine lands only ceased after 970.
Duke Géza had established peaceful relations with the Western Empire of Otto the Great (the hand of whose niece Gisella of Bavaria he obtained for his son Stephen) and ended hostilities with the Byzantine Empire. And he was the first to invite missionary priests, from Germany, to Hungary; yet, although he had his son baptised by them, he himself was not - he is said to have claimed to be mighty enough to worship as many gods as he liked.
His son Vajk, being baptised as István (St Stephen) had been the first Christian King of Hungary (997-1038). He built on the success of his father Duke Géza, the first ruler to impose firm central control over a people who, until then, had been more a confederation of clans - willing to cooperate in war, but little else - than a unified nation. Promptly, forcefully and with ruthless efficiency he asserted his supremacy over the nation and several obstreperous elder relatives, who disputed his right to the succession (supreme leadership had hitherto been elective by seniority within the ruling family, not by primogeniture). He then asked for and received a royal crown from Pope Sylvester II - by his choice of patron demonstrating his determination to keep Hungary independent of both the Western and the Byzantine Empires - and with it he was crowned the first King of Hungary in the year 1000.
Early Middle Age
The country has been swarmed by civil wars over the succession during the next four decades. In the course of those four decades Hungary had had no less than six Kings - brothers, cousins, uncles and nephews fighting one another for the throne - and had suffered a final and bloody anti-Christian uprising, supported by one of the claimants. During the same period, taking advantage of internal strife, the Western Empire tried, but failed, to establish its suzerainty over Hungary. This chaotic period had resulted from the untimely death, in a hunting accident in 1031, of prince Imre, only son and heir of István.
His uncle László I (1077-95), was monarch who gave Hungary order again, he sought to embody the ideal of preux chevalier sans peur et sans reproche. Canonised a century later, he is known in Hungarian history as St László. He fended off repeated incursions of the Cumans from the east. He conquered Slevania and Ruthenia.
(the first POD – he was not brother-in-law of Zvonimir, king of Croatia and Slavonia, since these lands belonged to Dalmatia)
King Coloman (1095-1116) - known as the Bookish since, of unimposing physique, he had originally been intended for the Church and was, doubtless, literate - who entertained Godfrey of Bouillon and his entourage on their way to the First Crusade and the capture of Jerusalem, while firmly curbing the initial excesses of the crusading rabble. He is mainly memorable for the extensive legislation of his reign - including a decree that forbade the persecution of witches quia strigiis non sunt.
(the second POD Coloman could not take the Croatian royal crown and incorporate Croatia into Hungary as it was part of Dalmatia)
On coming to the throne Béla III (1172-96) had thoroughly reorganised the country's government, in line with Byzantine administrative practice. In particular, he expanded the Royal Chancellery, upgraded the post of Chancellor, and made written documents compulsory in all dealings with the Crown, as well as in all contracts and legal proceedings between private individuals.
The third, main POD: On November 3rd 1527, János I. Szapolyai was approved by Hungarian High-Estates as a king of Hungary against Ferdinand of Habsburg with support of sultane Süleyman II. In the peace treaty of Varadin (February 24th 1538) between RTC, Hungary and Turkey it was approved again, later on also in 1547. János died 1548 and Hungary was invaded by Turks. That time Hungarian Palatine, Tamás Nádasdy, claimed his role of regent of the kingdom for János II. Zsigmond, son of János I. Szapolyai, and lead the defence against Turks. Unsuccessful campaign resulted in occupation of Buda. Out of the once mighty kingdom, only Felvidék/Slevania remained, rest was captured by Turks. After resignation of János II. Zsigmond, an agile Transylvanian ruler, István Báthory, claimed the Hungarian throne against his opponents in 1570 and being also elected as the RTC king 1575 against Maxmillian of Habsburg. He was able using combined forces of RTC and Hungary to stop temporarily Turks on southern borders of Slevania. He died 1586 and was last king of Hungarian origin; Hungary appeared after his death to be in personal union with RTC until 1669. That time, after an election of Venedian noble Michał Czyraz as a new king of RTC in 1669, Hungarians refused him and Estates voted for Rudolf IV. Habsburg as a new king of Hungary. Simultaneously, Ottomans launched an attack against Hungary, pressuming it would be weakend by intra-political fights. His successor, Abrecht III., partially stopped Turks in south Felvidék (Slevania) and was able to hold Hungarian crown till 1766.
In the same moment when Prussia invaded Bohemia in Silesia, 1766, following the secret agreement between Austro-Dalmatian Monarchy and Prussia, Austro-Dalmatians had invaded Hungary. Bohemo-Hungarian Army, struggeling for survival in nothern Bohemia, was not able to stop them. ADE in a short time conquerred all the Hungarian territory, which was not under Ottomans rule.
During the Congress of Vienna, Napoleon released Royal Hungary from the hold of Austro-Dalmatia; Hungary was then an independent kingdom under French supervision on the edge of Balkans, maintaining the peace, for the time.
1869, Hungary gained full independence from Turkey after a general uprising, and succeded in liberating all its historical territory. Hungary once again became an Eastern European power.
The First Great War
Hungary, as a member of Triple Entente, joined the Austrian Monarchy in the First Great War along with the Holy Roman Empire in April 1914 declaring war on Muntenia. Hungary and Austria were on fairly good terms before the war broke out and the Hungarians had always held designs on Muntenian territory, so this general war provided an excellent excuse for the Hungarians to make a move. Hungarians were forced to more or less withdraw from the southern front after the Oltenian rebellion in early 1916, and the start of the Russian invasion Hungary. Hungary sued with Austria for peace in November 1917, trying to preserve its pre-war extent. The Great War was disastrous for Hungary; not only did it not acquire Multenia as it wanted, but also lost Oltenia to revolutionaries.
The Second Great War
Hungary, out for revenge for its painful defeat in the First Great War, joined the Großartige Allianz in 1937. After its collapse, Hungary remained on the side of Germany and at the end it was invaded by Russia. Like the First Great War, the Second Great War also spelled disaster for Hungary; it lost Slevania and territory in Somogy and Baranya with the town of Pecs to the CSDS. Russia installed a SNORist regime.
Magyar Népjóléti Pártja (MNP; Hungarian Peoples' Welfare Party) was a right-wing radical junta, ruling Hungary under the supervision of SNOR. This radical party thought to regain Pecs during a Russian attempt to crush the CSDS. But CSDS leader Josip Broz foresaw the impending invasion and had agents placed in Hungary to investigate possibilities of Hungarians revolting against the MNP and Russia. The White Council felt that the Hungarians and the other satellites were too unreliable to engage with them in a military operation against the CSDS - even if it was only Russian troops that were used. The Russian troops would have to fight through Hungary or Romania first, and was both too risky and costly. The Hungarians people were not eager to engage in a new war, remembering the great losses of the prior wars.
And indeed, a Hungarian Revolution erupted on 23 October 1956; the direct reason were demonstrations of Hungarian students and workers in support of civic disobedience in Estonia, and it quickly grew into a large-scale revolution against the MNP. With Russian help, the latter managed to crush the demonstration. Possibly CSDS agents played a role in this revolution, although none of this has been proven.
In 1975, a minor ideological shift happened in the halls of government, when the old ruler Károly Kisfaludy died and was replaced by István Oros. While not truly more liberal, Oros was far more relaxed in his rule. He enjoyed life more and this enjoyment brought relaxation to Hungarian society as a whole. One of his more famous acts happened during a military parade, wherein he publicly expressed dislike to the roundel in use by the air force at the time, and he asked that the chevron be changed.
After the fall of SNOR, Hungary emerged in 1990 as the most liberal of the countries formerly held under Russian domination. The new Palatine-regent Sándor Rózsa was appointed and Hungary became a Kingdom with a vacant throne.
The MNP was reformed into the Magyar Igazság Pártja (MIP; Party of Hungarian Justice). Presently, their platform demands the immediate return of the Felvidék (Hungarian name for Slevania) and the formerly Hungarian parts of Croatia (including Eszék/Osijek!!) by any means necessary.
The other major parties in Hungary are the Demokratikus Ifjúság Pártja (DIP; Party of Democratic Youth), Magyar Kisgazdák Pártja (MKP; Hungarian Smallholders' Party) and Sörivók Pártja (SP; Beer-drinkers' Party).
The DIP was the first party formed after the fall of the MNP, initially comprised mainly of university students. In the post-fall elections, DIP became the official opposition party. Their platform is one of economic conservatism and social liberalism.
The MKP is the party which won the post-fall elections; socially and economically conservative.
The SP is where the Dalmatian Beer Drinkers' Party got its name. This was created mostly as a joke, and ran in the first elections after the fall of the MNP on a platform containing all manner of bizarre points, including the requirement that all factories provide free beer to their workers during working hours, and an immediate declaration of war Russia for 40 years of illegal occupation. Needless to say, they have not met with any success in election, apart from a few handfuls of protest votes.