Croatian

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National and official language of Croatia. Croats declare that Slovenian is simply 'Old Croatian'.

Example of Croatian official print

Until 1949, Croatian and Slovenian official documents and books were printed in a modernised form of the Carolingian minuscule script used in the Freising manuscripts of the 10th century, which are the oldest written attestations of Slovenian, and simultaneously, the oldest record of any Slavic language in a Roman script. Slovene and Croatian both used a form of Kurrentschrift as a cursive handwriting.

Example of modern (post-1949) Croatian handwriting

Croatian (along with Slovene and Dalmatian) writing underwent an official change following the establishment of the CSDS. As the then-existing writing systems were viewed as "bourgeois", laws were brought into force establishing the official use of a more modern typeface for all purposes; even so, in middle schools the older typefaces were still taught for secondary knowledge. Handwriting was reformed as well, with the new script being based on the older Kurrentschrift variants; the new scripts are very similar to the German Suetterlin-Schrift.

Following the collapse of the CSDS, the CSDS-era laws fell into disregard; In Croatia, both Slovene and Croatian have returned to using the pre-1949 typeface, but unlike in Dalmatia, where the modern style is still in common use, in Croatia the use of the Carolingian minuscule is universal in all applications, to the extent that many books that were published in the CSDS are being reissued with only the typeface being changed. However, the modified (simplified) cursive script introduced in the CSDS is still in widespread use, however schools are now teaching the pre-1949 Kurrent-Schrift once again, with a view to replacing the CSDS cursive.


207-Word Swadesh List

Two forms separated by a slash indicate "official" dialectal differences between western and eastern Croatian respectively ("official" here means either is recognised as acceptable in standard literary Croatian).

Adjectives are shown in indefinite form unless such does not exist.

ja ty on my vy oni éto to ovdě tam
[ja] [ti] [on] [mi] [vi] [ˈoɲi] [ˈeːto] [to] [ˈoʋɟe] [tam]
tko kaj gdě kada kako ne sve mnouhy neki nekoliko / nekaj
[tko] [kaj] [gɟe] [ˈka.da] [ˈka.ko] [ne] [sv̥e] [ˈmnoː.ɦi] [ˈne.ki] [ˈne.kaj] / [ne.ˈko.ʎĭ.ko]
drouhy jeden dva tři čtyři pět věliky dolh širok debel
[ˈdroː.ɦi] [[ˈje.den] [dva] [tr̝i] [ˈtʃti.r̝i] [pet] [ˈvje.ʎĭ.ki] [dolh] [ˈʃi.rok] [ˈde.bel]
težek mály krátek uzek tánek žena muž človek otrok supruha
[ˈte.ʒek] [ˈmaː.li] [ˈkraː.tek] [ˈu.zek] [ˈtaː.nek] [ˈʒe.na] [muʒ] [ˈtʃlo.vek] [ˈot.rok] [ˈsu.pru.ɦa]
supruh majka / mati otec zvěř ryba ptica pes úš zmia hlysta / crv
[ˈsu.pruh] [ˈmaj.ka] / [ˈma.ci] [ˈo.tets] [zvjer̝] [ˈri.ba] [ˈpci.tsa] [pes] [uːʃ] [ˈzmʲi.ja] [ˈhli.sta] / [tsr̩v]
drvo hozd štáp vouťe sěme list kořen kora cvět tráva
[ˈdr̩.vo] [hozd] [ʃtaːp] [ˈvoː.ce] [ˈsje.me] [ʎist] [ˈko.r̝en] [ˈko.ra] [tsfjet] [ˈtraː.va]
vrv kouža měso krv kost mást jajce roh řep péro
[vr̩v] [ˈkoː.ʒa] [ˈmje.so] [kr̩v] [kost] [maːst] [ˈjaj.tse] [roh] [r̝ep] [ˈpeː.ro]
vlasě hláva ucho ouko nos usta zub jezyk noket stopalo
[ˈvla.sje] [ˈhlaː.va] [ˈu.xo] [ˈoː.ko] [nos] [ˈus.ta] [zup] [ˈje.zik] [ˈno'ket] [ˈsto.pa.lo]
noha kolěno ruka křílo trbuch cřévo vrat léďa prsa srce
[ˈno.ɦa] [ˈko.ʎe.no] [ˈru.ka] [ˈkr̝iː.lo] [ˈtr̩.bux] [ˈtsr̝eː.vo] [vrat] [ˈleːɟa] [ˈpr̩.sa] [ˈsr̩.tse]
jetra piti jesti hřisti sesati pľuvati bruchati dachtati dychati smiati se
[ˈjet.ra] [ˈpi.ci] [ˈjes.ci] [ˈhr̝is.ci] [ˈse.sa.ci] [ˈpʎu.va.ci] [ˈbru.xa.ci] [ˈdax.ta.ci] [ˈdi.xa.ci] [ˈsmi.ja.ci se]
viďeti čuti znáti mysliti myřisati strach spávati živěti umřeti ubiti
[ˈvi.ɟe.ci] [ˈtʃu.ci] [ˈznaː.ci] [ˈmis.ʎi.ci] [mi.ˈr̝i.sa.ci] [strax] [ˈspaː.va.ci] [ˈʒi.vje.ci] [u.ˈmr̝e.ci] [ˈu.bi.ci]
boryti se loviti udářiti rezati cěpati ubosti čéšati kopati plavati létěti
[ˈbo.ri.ci se] [ˈlo.vi.ci] [u.ˈdaː.r̝i.ci] [ˈre.za.ci] [ˈtsje.pa.ci] [u.ˈbos.ci] [ˈtʃeː.ʃa.ci] [ˈko.pa.ci] [ˈpla.va.ci] [ˈleː.ce.ci]
choditi doťi ležati sěditi státi skréniti pádati dáti dř'ati stisniti
[ˈxo.ɟi.ci] [ˈdo.ci] [ˈle.ʒa.ci] [ˈsje.ɟi.ci] [ˈstaː.ci] [ˈskreː.nu.ci] [ˈpaː.da.ci] [ˈdaː.ci] [ˈdr̝.a.ci] [ˈsci.sɲi.ci]
trľati práti obřísati vléťi hurati báciti vezati šíti račúnati řéťi
[ˈtr̩.ʎa.ci] [ˈpraː.ci] [o.ˈbr̝i.sa.ci] [ˈvlaː.ci] [ˈhu.ra.ci] [ˈbaː.tsi.ci] [ˈve.za.ci] [ˈʃiː.ci] [ra.ˈtʃuː.na.ci] [ˈr̝eː.ci]
pěvati íhrati plívati téťi zamrzniti nabrekniti solnce měsec zvězda voda
[ˈpje.va.ci] [ˈiː.hra.ci] [ˈpʎiː.va.ci] [ˈteː.ci] [za.ˈmr̩z.ɲi.ci] [na.ˈbrek.ɲi.ci] [ˈsoln.tse] [ˈmje.sets] [ˈzvjez.da] [ˈvo.da]
dážd řeka jezero mouře sol kámen pěsek prách zemľa oblak
[daːʒd] [ˈr̝eː.ka] [ˈje.ze.ro] [ˈmoː.r̝e] [sol] [ˈkaː.men] [ˈpje.sek] [praːx] [ˈzem.ʎa] [ˈob.lak]
mehla nebo věter sněh led dym požar pepel hořeti cesta
[ˈmeɦ.la] [ˈne.bo] [ˈvje.ter] [sɲeh] [led] [dim] [ˈpo.ʒar] [ˈpe.pel] [ˈho.r̝e.ci] [ˈtses.ta]
planina / hora crven / rďeč zelen žolt běl crn nouť den lěto topel
[ˈpla.ɲi.na] / [ˈho.ra] [ˈtsr̩.ven] / [ˈr̩.ɟetʃ] [ˈze.len] [ʒolt] [bjel] [tsr̩n] [noːc] [den] [ˈʎe.to] [ˈto.pel]
chladen polen nov stár dober loš hnyl prľev práv kruhel
[ˈxla.den] [ˈpo.len] [nov] [staːr] [ˈdo.ber] [loʃ] [hnil] [ˈpr̩.ʎev] [praːv] [ˈkru.ɦel]
ošter tup hladek moker such právilen blízek (adj) dalek (adj) desny (adj) lěvy (adj)
[ˈoʃ.ter] [tup] [ˈhla.dek] [ˈmo.ker] [sux] [ˈpraː.vi.len] [ˈbliː.zek] [ˈdaː.lek] [ˈdes.ni] [ˈʎe.vi]
na u s in če kěr, zato íme - - -
[na] [u] [s] [in] [tʃe] [kjer], [ˈza.to] [ˈiː.me] - - -



Translation of the text in the example of Croatian official print:

A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF CROATIA

The capital city of the Independent State of Croatia is Ousěk (also known as Osijek). Ousěk is a large city in the eastern part of Croatia. Other important cities in Croatia are Kotořiba, Kranj, Ľubľana (Ljubljana) and Mářibor.

Croatia is a republic. This means, that Croatia does not have a king, rather a parliament. Members of parliament are elected by the people of Croatia. The current president of Croatia is Krunoslav Tomiť. He was elected during the year 2000. President Tomiť studied electrotechnical engineering and political philosophy at the "Nikola Tesla" Technical University in Belgrade (nowadays in Serbia). He was born in Běli Manastyr, not far to the north of Ousěk.

The most important industries of Croatia are agriculture and mining. Also, there are many factories in the regions of Ousěk and Ľubľana.

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