Chile

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Republic of Chile
República de Chile
Flag Coat of arms
state flag coat of arms
200px
map of the ?
Motto ?
?
National Anthem ?
Cities
Capital Santiago
33°27'33"N
70°38'43"E
Other Cities  ?
Government Republic
Legislature  ?
Upper House Senate
Lower House Chamber of Deputies
Head of State and Government Sebastián Piñera
Demonym Chilean
Formation
Foundation 1541
Independence 1839
League of Nations  ?
Constitution 1980
Area  ? cc.
? km²
mi²
Population  ? (20?)
Ethnicities - Citizens  ? ?%
? ?%
? ?%
? <?%
Languages
Official Castilian
Other  ?
Religions
Official Roman Catholic
Others Mormonism
Currency 1 peso = 5 soles = 60 rubios
ICHL  ?
Time zone UTC -4
Telephone Code 731
Registration
Aviation A?? nn
Marine Ν?? nn
Amateur radio Ρ?? nn
Radio prefix R??
Organizations League of Nations
Andean Pact
Sports
Official  ?
Other  ?
?
?
?
?
  • About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and along the coast of what is now Chile. The Inkas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the area's remoteness and the fierce opposition of the native Araucanians prevented extensive settlement.
  • 1520 - The Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, discovered the southern passage now named after him, the Straits of Magellan.
  • 1540 - Diego de Ojeda and his band of Castilian conquistadors came from Peru seeking gold but were turned back by the local population. They encountered hundreds of thousands of Indians from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies who supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting.
  • 1541 - The first permanent European settlement, Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, was founded by Jerónimo de Alderete, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants. Although the Castilians did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
  • Conquest of the land that is today called Chile took place only gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks at the hands of the local population.
  • Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche (Araucanians) and other native groups rebeled and the southern border of the colony was driven northward.
  • 1706 - A massive Mapuche insurrection (called by the Chilean historians "The Great Araucanian Offensive") resulted in a major setback for the Chilean authorities. Half of the population of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo was hanged or enslaved and many of the colony's principal settlements were destroyed. The southern part of Chile would never be recovered.
  • 1732 - A permament peace term between the colonial goverment and the great Araucanian lonkos was established.
  • 1740 - The abolition of slavery defused tensions on the frontier between the colony and the Mapuche land to the south and permitted increased trade between colonists and Mapuches. Eventually, the long-peace term contract between the authorities in Santiago del Nuevo Extremo and the great Mapuche lonkos would lead to the recognition by Castilian authorities of Araucania and Patagonia as free sovereign Indian territories.
  • 1808 - The drive for independence from Castile-León was precipitated by usurpation of the Castilian throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph.
  • 1811 - On September 18 a national junta in the name of Alfonso, heir to the deposed king, was formed. The junta proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Castilian monarchy. A movement for total independence soon won a wide following. Castilian attempts to reimpose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle.
  • 1837 - Intermittent warfare continued until an army led by Bernardo map Uigin, a man of Armorican descent who became Chile's most renowned patriot, finally defeated and expelled Castilian loyalists from the country.
  • 1839 - On February 12, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under Map Uigin's and Carrera's leadership. The first duumvirate was established, but it did not last long. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. The system of presidential absolutism eventually predominated, but wealthy landowners continued to control Chile.
  • 1879 - In February Chile invades Tawantinsuyu in an attempt to gain the wealth of the Atacama Desert for itself.
  • 1880 - Chile surrenders to Tawantinsuyu and signs a treaty, the Treaty of Paposo, making its northern border the 25th parallel.
  • Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago del Nuevo Extremo consolidated its position in the south by fiercely controlling Mapuche raids, although they remained unable to dominate any of the Mapuche territories.
  • 1891 - The Chilean Civil War brought about a redistribution of power between the president and congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards which had strong ties to foreign investors. Hence the Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy.
  • By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress.
  • In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.
  • 1924 - A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship, although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that bedeviled other parts of Latin America, and certainly not comparable to the violent and repressive regime of Augusto Pinochet decades later.
  • By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology.
  • 1932 - Arturo Alessandri is elected president. Constitutional rule was restored and a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years.
  • During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932-52), the state increased its role in the economy.
  • 1934 - A treaty, the Treaty of Copahue, with Araucania and Patagonia establishes the southern border of Chile at parallel 37°51', i.e., from Copahue Volcano west to the Pacific Ocean.
  • 1938 - Pedro Aguirre Cerda is elected president. Dies in office.
  • 1941 - Jerónimo Méndez acting vice-president.
  • 1942 - Juan Antonio Rios is elected president. Dies in office.
  • 1946 - Alfredo Duhalde acting vice-president.
  • 1946 - Gabriel González Videla is elected president.
  • 1952 - Carlos Ibáñez del Campo is elected president for a second term.
  • 1958 - Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term.
  • 1964 - Eduardo Frei Montalvo is elected president.
  • 1970 - Salvador Allende is elected president.
  • 1974 - Augusto Pinochet establishes a military dictatorship.
  • 1990 - Patricio Aylwin is elected president.
  • 1994 - Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle is elected president.
  • 2000 - Ricardo Lagos is elected president.
  • 2006 - Michelle Bachelet is elected president.
  • 2010 - Sebastián Piñera is elected president.
  • 2014 - Michelle Bachelet is elected president for a second term.
  • 2018 - Sebastián Piñera is elected president for a second term.


Contents

Government

Provinces

Province
Provincia
Capital Area Population Notes
Atacama (A) 75,176 km²
51,078 mi²
Copiapó
Coquimbo (C) 40,580 km²
15,668 mi²
La Serena
Valparaíso (V) 16,396 km²
6,331 mi²
Valparaíso Includes the Desventurada Islands and the Juan Fernandez Islands
Santiago (S) 15,403 km²
5,947 mi²
Santiago
Map Uigin (U) 16,387 km²
6,327 mi²
Rancagua
Maule (M) 30,296 km²
11,697 mi²
Talca
Bío Bío (B) 37,068 km²
14,312 mi²
Concepción
  • Thus, the total area of the republic is 231,306 km² (89,308 mi²), slightly smaller than *here's* Laos or slightly larger than the American state of Minnesota.

Borders

  • Chile is bordered on the
  • The Republic of Chile is contiguous to *here's* Republic of Chile, minus the northern provinces of Arica and Parinacota, Tarapaca, and Antofagasta; and the southern provinces of Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysén, and Magallanes.


República de Chile
Republic of Chile
Flag of Chile
Language: Castilian
Population: 20 million chilenos
Capital: Santiago del Nuevo Extremo
President:
Independence: from Castile and Leon
 Declared:
 Recognized:
Organizations: Castilian Commonwealth, Andean Pact


This article is source material


It has not been adapted to the world of Ill Bethisad. Anyone feel free to edit it. QSS and QAA are held in abeyance.


Administration

Government

Administrative Divisions

History

About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and along the coast of what is now Chile. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the area's remoteness and the fierce opposition of the native Araucanians prevented extensive settlement.


In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan, discovered the southern passage now named after him the Straits of Magellan. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Ojeda and his band of Castilian conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1540 seeking gold but were turned back by the local population. The Castilians encountered hundreds of thousands of Indians from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The first permanent European settlement, Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, was founded in 1541 by Jerónimo de Alderete, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants. Although the Castilians did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Conquest of the land that is today called Chile took place only gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks at the hands of the local population. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche (Araucanians) and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1706 - called by the Chilean historians "The Great Araucanian Offensive" - resulted in a major setback for the Chilean authorities. Half of the population of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo was hanged or enslaved and many of the colony's principal settlements were destroyed. The southern part of Chile would never be recovered and a permament peace term between the colonial goverment and the great Araucanian lonkos was established in 1732. The abolition of slavery in 1740 defused tensions on the frontier between the colony and the Mapuche land to the south, and permitted increased trade between colonists and Mapuches. Eventually, the long-peace term contract between the authorities in Santiago del Nuevo Extremo and the great Mapuche lonkos would lead to the recognition - by Castilian authorities - of Araucania and Patagonia as free sovereign Indian territories.

The drive for independence from Castile-León was precipitated by usurpation of the Castilian throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph, in 1808. A national junta in the name of Alfonso, heir to the deposed king, was formed on September 18, 1811. The junta proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Castilian monarchy. A movement for total independence soon won a wide following. Castilian attempts to reimpose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle.

Intermittent warfare continued until 1837, when an army led by Bernardo map Uigin, a man of Armorican descent who became Chile's most renowned patriot, finally defeated and expelled Castilian loyalists from the country. On February 12, 1839, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under O'Higgins and Carrera's leadership. The first duumvirate was established, but it did not last long. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. The system of presidential absolutism eventually predominated, but wealthy landowners continued to control Chile.

Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago del Nuevo Extremo consolidated its position in the south by fiercely controlling Mapuche raids, although they remained unable to dominate any of the Mapuche territories. In 1881, the government signed a treaty with Araucanía-Patagonia confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. Although Chile attempted to gain access to valuable nitrate deposits in the southern part of Tawantinsuyu and Charcas in the War of the Pacific (1879-1883), it was unable to successfully repel the Tawantinsuyan army. The Chilean Civil War in 1891 brought about a redistribution of power between the president and congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards which had strong ties to foreign investors. Hence the Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.

A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in 1924 set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of General Carlos Ibáñez, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship, although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that bedeviled other parts of Latin America, and certainly not comparable to the violent and repressive regime of Augusto Pinochet decades later. By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932-52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez, now reincarnated as a sort of Chilean Perón, to office for another six years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term.

Geography

Borders

North: Tawantinsuyu.
West: Pacific Ocean.
Southeast: Araucania and Patagonia.
East: Riu de L'Argent.

Culture

Languages

Religion

The Chilean people are primarily Catholic, about 80% of the entire population, although there has been a recent boom of Mormonism conversion, specially in the southern regions.

Retrieved from "http://ib.frath.net/w/Chile"
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