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Map of Iberia and North Africa

Iberia is the Greek name for Hispania or Spain. It is used as a geographic synonym of the Iberian Peninsula.

Hispania, is the Latin name for Iberia. It refers to either the Iberian Peninsula or the Roman provinces founded on the peninsula. In Roman times, there were three provinces into which Hispania was divided:

  • Hispania Baetica
  • Hispania Tarraconensis (corresponds to Aragon plus central and northern Castile and Leon)
  • Lusitania (corresponds more or less to the current kingdom of Portugal).

Spain (España in Castilian, Espanha in Portuguese, Espanya in Catalan) is the common name for the Christian kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula.

The term Iberic should refer to the peoples and cultures that inhabited the peninsula before the Roman era, reserving Hispanian for the Roman period, and Spanish for the Christian kingdoms during and after the reconquista. The term Iberian refers to anything related to the Iberian Peninsula.