Japanese Measurements

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Weights and Measures in Japan

The Empire of Japan uses a hybrid of traditional measurements and the SI. The basic SI units are familiar to most Japanese. As with everything, there are Japanese and Corean names. The xò/so and dai/tai prefixes on some units are dropped in general usage, except in xòbicoru/sotam

Linear measure

1 Wali/Huari 和里               = 25 Daitxò      = 2.5 MILLE          [3.70 km, 2.30 mi] 
1 Saili/Seri 西里               = 10 Daitxò      = 1 MILLE            [1.48 km, .925 mi]
1 Daitxò/Taijeñ 大町            = 50 Djò         = 100 PASSI          [148 m, 485 ft]
1 Djò/Chañ 丈                   = 10 Xacu        = 2 PASSI            [296 cm, 9'8.5"]
1 Quen/Kan 間                   = 6 Xacu         = 1.2 PASSI          [177.6 cm, 5'9.9"] 
1 Hiro/Sim 尋                   = 5 Xacu         = 1 PASSUS           [148 cm, 4'10.3"]
1 Cudjira Xacu/Kieñ Chhek 鯨尺  = 1.25 Xacu      = 1.25 PEDES         [37.0 cm, 1'2.625"]
1 Xacu/Chhek 尺                 = 12 Saisun      = 1 PES              [29.6 cm, 11.7"]
1 Wasun/Huachhon 和寸           = 1.2 Saisun     = 1.2 UNCIAE         [2.96 cm, 1.17"]
1 Saisun/Sechhon 西寸           = 12 Bu          = 1 UNCIA            [2.467cm, .971"]
1 Bu/Pun 分                     = 10 Lin         = 1 DOCICULA         [2.06mm, .0809"]
1 Lin/I 厘                      = 10 Mò          = 160 UNCICULAE      [206 µm, .00809"]
1 Mò/Mo 毛                      = 16 Xi          = 16 UNCICULAE       [20.6 µm, .000809"]
1 Xi/Sa 糸                                       = 1 UNCICULA         [1.28 µm, .0000506"]

The Xacu was originally slightly larger, at 30.3 cm, and the original Txò was 36 Djò (Dai- = big), with 36 Djò in a Li. The Li was thus slightly larger than the current Wali. Those two were altered to fit with SI better. Saili is literally "Western li", in contrast with Wali "Japanese li". A decimal progression was originally used below the xacu (the wasun still preserving that)

Area

1 Txò(bu)/Cheñ(bo) 町(歩)       = 10 Tan         = 3.75 JUGERA        [.946 ha, 2.33 ac]
1 Tan/Pan 反                    = 10 Se          = 4.5 UNCIAGRIA      [946 sq. m, .233 ac]
1 Se/Mu 畝                      = 30 Çubo        = 9/20 UNCIAGRIUM    [94.6 sq. m, 113 sq yd]
1 Bu/Po 歩                      = 1 Çubo         = 3/200 UNCIAGRIUM   [3.15 sq. m, 3.77 sq yd]
1 Çubo/Phieñ 坪                 = 10 Gò          = 3/200 UNCIAGRIUM   [3.15 sq. m, 3.77 sq yd] <-- 1x1 Quen
1 Gò/Hap 合                     = 10 Xacu        = 3/2000 UNCIAGRIUM  [3150 sq. cm, 3.393 sq ft]
1 Xacu/Chhek 尺                                  = 3/20000 UNCIAGRIUM [315 sq. cm, 48.86 sq in]

Weight

1 Bicoru/Tam 擔                 = 18 Can         = 3 TALENTES         [58.9 kg, 137 lb]
1 Xòbicoru/Sodam 少擔           = 6 Can          = 1 TALENS           [19.62 kg, 45.6 lb]
1 Can/Kuan 寛                   = 960 momme       = 10 LIBRAE          [3.27 kg, 7.6 lb]
1 Quin/Kyn 斤                   = 160 momme      = 1 2/3 LIBRAE       [545 g, 1.20 lb]
1 Hiacume/Paiñmok 百目          = 96 momme       = 1 LIBRA            [327 g, .76 lb]
1 Hatxime/Palmok 八目           = 8 Momme        = 1 UNCIA            [27.25 g, .961 oz]
1 Momme/Mun 匁                                   = 1 DRACHMA          [3.41 g]
1 Fun/Phun 分                   = 1/10 Momme     = 6 GRANA            [341 mg]
1 Lin/I 厘                      = 1/60 Momme     = 1 GRANUM           [56.8 mg]
1 Mò/Mo 毛                      = 1/600 Momme    = .1 GRANUM          [5.68 mg]

The Can and Momme are the standard units for giving weights. The Xòbicoru and Hatxime were created to match SI units. In addition, the Hiacume was originally 100 momme, the Can 1000 momme, the Lin 1/100 Momme (1/10 fun), and the Mò 1/1000 momme (1/10 lin). The momme was historically a bit larger, at 3.75 g. The Bicoru was originally 100 Quin (an old weight equal to 160 momme; thus 16 can to the bicoru), slightly larger (by about 2%) than the modern value, due to the higher value of the old momme

Volume

1 Cocu/Sek 石                   = 7  Saito       = 7 AMPHORAE         [181 l, 47.9 gal]
1 To/Du 斗                      = 12 Saixò       = 1 AMPHORA          [25.92 l, 6.847 gal]
1 Xò/Syñ 升                     = 12 Gò          = 4 SEXTARII         [2.16 l, 2.28 qt]
1 Gò/Hap 合                     = 12 Xòxacu      = 12 UNCIAE          [180 ml, 6.1 oz]
1 Xòxacu/Sojak 少勺             = 8 Fun          = 1 UNCIA            [15 ml, .51 oz]
1 Fun/Phun 分                   = 10 Lin         = 1 DRACHMA          [1.875 ml]
1 Lin/I 厘                      = 6 Sun          = 6 GUTTAE           [.188 ml]
1 Sun/Chhon 寸                                   = 1 GUTTA            [.03 ml]

The original xacu was 1/10 gò. It was altered to better conform with SI's small units. The gò is very nearly the same as in the old system. Originally, volume was purely decimal, with each unit being 10 times the preceding unit. Relative values have been altered to approach SI values, the sun (almost twice its historic value) and to (44% larger than its historic value) being the most altered. The unusual ratio between the cocu and the to being due to the fact that the historic cocu was equal to 6 17/18 amphorae.

Temperature

Japan uses the Celsius scale, i.e., freezing point of water is 0, boiling point of water at sea level is 60. The scale is called 摂氏, Sexxi in Japanese, and Sepssi in Corean.

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