Constitution of Hannover

From IBWiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover

I. BASIC PROVISIONS

Article 1

The Kingdom of Hannover is a unitary and indivisible democratic and social state.

Power in the Kingdom of Hannover derives from the people and belongs to the people as a community of free and equal citizens.

The people shall exercise this power through the election of representatives and through direct decision-making.

Article 2

The sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hannover is inalienable, indivisible and untransferable.

The sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hannover includes its land area, rivers, lakes, canals, internal maritime waters, and the air space above these extending until the limits of the Earth's atmosphere, as well as below the earth's surface extending until the bottom of the Earth's crust.

The Hannover Parliament or the people directly shall, independently and in accordance with the Constitution and law, decide: - on the regulation of economic, legal and political relations in the Kingdom of Hannover - on the preservation of natural and cultural wealth and its utilization - on association into alliances with other states.

The Kingdom of Hannover may conclude alliances with other states, retaining its sovereign right to decide on the powers to be delegated and the right freely to withdraw from such associations.


Article 3

Freedom, equal rights, national equality and equality of genders, love of peace, social justice, respect for human rights, inviolability of ownership, conservation of nature and the environment, the rule of law, and a democratic multiparty system are the highest values of the constitutional order of the Kingdom of Hannover and the ground for interpretation of the Constitution.


Article 4

In the Kingdom of Hannover government shall be organized on the principle of separation of powers into the legislative, executive and judicial branches, but limited by the right to local and regional self-government guaranteed by this Constitution.

The principle of separation of powers includes the forms of mutual cooperation and reciprocal checks and balances provided by the Constitution and law.

Article 5

In the Kingdom of Hannover laws shall conform with the Constitution, and other rules and regulations shall conform with the Constitution and law.

Everyone shall abide by the Constitution and law and respect the legal order of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 6

Formation of political parties is free.

Internal organization of political parties shall be in accordance with the fundamental constitutional democratic principles.

Parties shall publicize the accounts on sources of their assets and property.

Political parties which by their programs or violent activities aim to demolish the free democratic order endanger the existence of the Kingdom of Hannover are unconstitutional. The decision on unconstitutionality shall be made by the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The status and financing of political parties shall be regulated by law.

Article 7

The armed forces of the Kingdom of Hannover shall protect its sovereignty and independence and defend its territorial integrity.

The armed forces of the Kingdom of Hannover may cross its borders or act over its borders only upon a prior decision of the Hannover Parliament.

The armed forces may cross the borders of the Kingdom of Hannover without a prior decision of the Hannover Parliament for the purposes of exercises within the international defense organizations which the Kingdom of Hannover has joined or joins, and in order to offer humanitarian aid.

In the circumstances provided by Articles 17 and 100 of the Constitution, the armed forces may, if the nature of jeopardy demands so, be used as assistance to police and other governmental bodies.

Organization of defense, command, administration and democratic control over the armed forces of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be regulated by this Constitution and law.

Article 8

The borders of the Kingdom of Hannover may only be altered by a decision of the Hannover Parliament.

Article 9

Hannover citizenship, its acquisition and termination shall be regulated by law.

No citizen of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be exiled from the Kingdom of Hannover or deprived of citizenship, nor extradited to another state.

Article 10

The Kingdom of Hannover shall protect the rights and interests of its citizens living or residing abroad, and shall promote their links with the homeland.

Parts of the Hannover nation in other states shall be guaranteed special concern and protection by the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 11

The coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Hannover is the historic Hannover coat-of-arms.

The flag of the Kingdom of Hannover consists of two colors: orange, and white.

The anthem of the Kingdom of Hannover is "Unse Hooch Land" - Our Great Land.

The description of the historic Hannover coat-of-arms and flag, the text of the anthem, and the use of these and other state symbols shall be regulated by law.


Article 12

The Low Saxon, and Emisc languages and the Latin script shall be in official use in the Kingdom of Hannover.

In individual local units, another language and the Cyrillic or some other script may be introduced into official use along with the Low Saxon and Emisc languages and the Latin script under conditions specified by law.

Article 13

The capital of the Kingdom of Hannover is Hannover Stadt (Hannover City).

Status, jurisdiction and organization of the capital city of Hannover Stadt shall be regulated by law.

II. PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 14

All persons within the Kingdom of Hannover shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other belief, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social status or other characteristics.

All shall be equal before the law.

Article 15

Members of all national minorities shall have equal rights in the Kingdom of Hannover.

Equality and protection of the rights of national minorities shall be regulated by the Constitutional Act which shall be adopted in the procedure provided for the organic law.

Besides the general electoral right, the special right of the members of national minorities to elect their representatives into the Hannover Parliament may be provided by law.

Members of all national minorities shall be guaranteed freedom to express their nationality, freedom to use their language and script, and cultural autonomy.

Article 16

Freedoms and rights may only be restricted by law in order to protect freedoms and rights of others, public order, public morality and health.

Every restriction of freedoms or rights shall be proportional to the nature of the necessity for restriction in each individual case.

Article 17

During a state of war or an immediate threat to the independence and unity of the State, or in the event of severe natural disasters, individual freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution may be restricted. This shall be decided by the Hannover Parliament by a two-thirds majority of all members or, if the Hannover Parliament is unable to meet, at the proposal of the Defence Council and upon the counter-signature of the Prime Minister.

The extend of such restrictions shall be adequate to the nature of the danger, and may not result in the inequality of persons in respect of race, color, gender, language, religion, sexual orientation, or national or social origin.

Not even in the case of an immediate threat to the existence of the State may restrictions be imposed on the application of the provisions of this Constitution concerning the right to life, prohibition of torture, cruel or degrading treatment or punishment, on the legal definitions of penal offenses and punishments, or on freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 18

The right to appeal against the first instance decisions made by courts or other authorities shall be guaranteed.

The right to appeal may exceptionally be excluded in cases specified by law, if other legal remedies are ensured.

Article 19

Individual decisions of administrative agencies and other bodies vested with pubic authority shall be grounded on law.

Judicial review of decisions made by administrative agencies and other bodies vested with public authority shall be guaranteed.

Article 20

Anyone who violates the provisions of the Constitution concerning the human rights and fundamental freedoms shall be held personally responsible and may not be exculpated by invoking a superior order.

2. PERSONAL AND POLITICAL FREEDOMS AND RIGHTS

Article 21

Every human being has the right to life. This right may only be restricted by decision of a court decision in accordance with the law, and with the unanimous approval of the Defence Council.

Article 22

Freedom and personality of everyone shall be inviolable.

No one shall be deprived of liberty, nor may his liberty be restricted, except upon a court decision in accordance with law.

Article 23

No one shall be subjected to any form of maltreatment or, without his consent, to medical or scientific experimentation.

Article 24

No one shall be arrested or detained without a court warrant. Such a warrant shall be read and served on the person being arrested.

The police may arrest a person without a warrant when the person is reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence defined by law. The arrested person shall be promptly informed, in understandable terms, of the reasons for the arrest and of his rights determined by law.

Any person arrested or detained shall have the right to take proceedings before a court, which shall decide without delay on the legality of the arrest.

Article 25

All arrested and convicted persons shall be treated humanely and their dignity shall be respected.

Anyone who is detained and accused of a criminal offence shall have the right to be brought before the court within the shortest term specified by law and to be acquitted or sentenced within the statutory term.

A detainee may be released on legal bail to defend himself.

Any person who has been illegally deprived of liberty or convicted shall, in conformity with law, be entitled to damages and a public apology.

Article 26

All citizens of the Kingdom of Hannover and aliens shall be equal before the courts, government bodies and other bodies vested with pubic authority.

Article 27

The Bar, as an autonomous and independent service, shall provide everyone with legal aid, in conformity with law.

Article 28

Everyone shall be presumed innocent and may not be considered guilty of a criminal offence until his guilt has been proved by a final court judgment.

Article 29

Everyone shall have the right to the independent and fair trial provided by law which shall, within a reasonable term, decide upon his rights and obligations, or upon the suspicion or the charge of a penal offence.

In the case of suspicion or accusation for a penal offence, the suspected, accused or prosecuted person shall have the right: - to be informed in detail, and in the language he understands, within the shortest possible term, of the nature and reasons for the charges against him and of the evidence incriminating him, - to have adequate time and opportunity to prepare his defense, - to a defense counsel and free communication with him, and to be informed of this right, - to defend himself in person or with the assistance of a defense counsel of his own choice, and if he lacks resources to engage a counsel, to have a free counsel under the terms specified by law, - to be tried in his presence if he is accessible to the court,

- to interrogate or have the prosecution witnesses interrogated and to demand the presence and hearing of the defense witnesses under the same circumstances as for the witnesses for the prosecution, - to free assistance of an interpreter if he does not understand the language used in the court.

The suspected, accused and prosecuted person shall not be forced to confess his guilt.

Evidence illegally obtained shall not be admitted in court proceedings.

Criminal proceedings shall only be initiated before the court of justice upon the demand of an authorized prosecutor.

Article 30

The sentence for a serious and exceptionally dishonorable criminal offence may, in conformity with law, have as a consequence the loss of acquired rights or a ban on acquiring, for a specific period of time, certain rights relating to the conduct of specific affairs, if this is required for the protection of the legal order.

Article 31

No one shall be punished for an act which before its commission was not defined as a punishable offence by law or international law, nor he may be sentenced to a penalty which was not defined by law. If a less severe penalty is determined by law after the commission of an act, such penalty shall be imposed.

No one may be tried anew nor punished in criminal proceedings for an act for which he has already been acquitted or sentenced by a final court judgment in accordance with law.

The cases and reasons for the renewal of court proceedings under section 2 of this Article may be provided only by law, in accordance with the Constitution and an international agreement.

Article 32

Anyone lawfully within the territory of the Kingdom of Hannover shall enjoy the liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

Every citizen of the Kingdom of Hannover shall have the right to leave the State territory at any time and settle abroad permanently or temporarily, and to return to his homeland at any time.

The liberty of movement within the Kingdom of Hannover and the right to enter or leave it may exceptionally be restricted by law, if this is necessary to protect the legal order, or health, rights and freedoms of others.


Article 33

Foreign citizens and stateless persons may obtain asylum in the Kingdom of Hannover, unless they are prosecuted for non-political crimes and activities contrary to the basic principles of international law.

No alien lawfully within the territory of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be expelled or extradited to another state, except in pursuance of a decision made in accordance with a treaty and law.

Article 34

Homes shall be inviolable.

Only a court may order the search of a home or other premises, issuing a warrant with the statement of reasons, in conformity with law.

The tenant or his representative shall have the right to be present at the search of his home or other premises in the compulsory presence of two witnesses.

Under the conditions provided by law, the police authorities may enter a person's home or premises and carry out a search in the absence of witnesses even without a court warrant or consent of the tenant, if this is indispensable to enforce an arrest warrant or to apprehend the offender, or to prevent serious danger to life and health of people or major property.

A search aimed at finding or securing evidence for which there is grounded probability to be found in the home of the perpetrator of a criminal offence may only be carried out in the presence of witnesses.

Article 35

Everyone shall be guaranteed respect for and legal protection of personal and family life, dignity, reputation and honor.

Article 36

Freedom and privacy of correspondence and all other forms of communication shall be guaranteed and inviolable.

Restrictions necessary for the protection of the State security and the conduct of criminal proceedings may only be prescribed by law.

Article 37

Everyone shall be guaranteed the safety and secrecy of personal data. Without consent from the person concerned, personal data may be collected, processed and used only under conditions specified by law.

Protection of data and supervision of the work of information systems in the State shall be regulated by law.

The use of personal data contrary to the purpose of their collection shall be prohibited.

Article 38

Freedom of thought and expression shall be guaranteed.

Freedom of expression shall specifically include freedom of the press and other media of communication, freedom of speech and public expression, and free establishment of all institutions of public communication.

Censorship shall be forbidden. Journalists shall have the right to freedom of reporting and access to information.

The right to correction shall be guaranteed to anyone whose constitutional and legal rights have been violated by public information.

Article 39

Any call for or incitement to war, or resort to violence, national, racial or religious hatred, or any form of intolerance shall be prohibited and punishable by law.

Article 40

Freedom of conscience and religion and freedom to manifest religion and other convictions shall be guaranteed.

Article 41

All religious communities shall be equal before the law and shall be separated from the State.

Religious communities shall be free, in conformity with law, publicly to perform religious services, to open schools, educational and other institutions, social and charitable institutions and to manage them, and shall them, and shall in their activity enjoy the protection and assistance of the State.

Article 42

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right of public assembly and peaceful protest, in conformity with law.

Article 43

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of association for the purposes of protection of their interests or promotion of their social, economic, political, national, cultural and other convictions and objectives. For this purpose, everyone may freely form trade unions and other associations, join them or leave them, in conformity with law.

The exercise of this right shall be restricted by the prohibition of any violent threat to the democratic constitutional order and independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 44

Every citizen of the Kingdom of Hannover shall have the right, under equal conditions, to take part in the conduct of public affairs, and to have access to public services.

Article 45

All Hannover citizens of the Kingdom of Hannover who have reached the age of eighteen years shall have universal and equal suffrage. This right shall be exercised through direct elections by secret ballot.

In elections for the Hannover Parliament, the Kingdom of Hannover shall ensure suffrage to its citizens who are abroad at the time of the elections, so that they may vote in the countries in which they are or in any other way specified by law.

Article 46

Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions and complaints, to make proposals to government and other public bodies, and to receive answers too.

Article 47

Military service and the defense of the Kingdom of HAnnover shall be the duty of every capable citizen of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Conscientious objection shall be allowed to all those who for religious or moral reasons are not willing to participate in the performance of military service in the armed forces. Such persons shall be obliged to perform other duties specified by law.


3. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

Article 48

The right of ownership shall be guaranteed.

Ownership implies obligations. Owners and users of property shall contribute to the general welfare.

A foreign person may acquire property under conditions spelled out by law.

The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.

Article 49

Entrepreneurial and market freedom shall be the basis of the economic system of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The State shall ensure all entrepreneurs an equal legal status on the market. Abuse of monopoly position defined by law shall be forbidden.

The State shall stimulate the economic progress and social welfare and shall care for the economic development of all its regions.

The rights acquired through the investment of capital shall not be diminished by law, or by any other legal act.

Foreign investors shall be guaranteed free transfer and repatriation of profits and the capital invested.

Article 50

Property may, in the interest of the Kingdom of Hannover, be restricted or expropriated by law upon payment of compensation equal to its market value.

The exercise of entrepreneurial freedom and property rights may exceptionally be restricted by law for the purposes of protecting the interests and security of the Kingdom of Hannover, nature, the environment and public health.

Article 51

Everyone shall participate in the defrayment of public expenses in accordance with his or her economic capabilities.

The system of taxation shall be based on the principles of equality and equity.

Article 52

The sea, seashore and islands, waters, air space, mineral wealth and other natural resources, as well as land, forests, fauna and flora, other parts of nature, real estate and goods of special cultural, historic, economic or ecological significance which are specified by law to be of interest to the Kingdom of Hannover shall enjoy its special protection.

The way in which goods of interest to the Kingdom of Hannover may be used and exploited by bearers of rights to them and by their owners, and compensation for the restrictions imposed on them, shall be regulated by law.

Article 53

The Bank of Hannover shall be the central bank of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The status, rights and obligations of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be regulated by law.

The Bank of Hannover shall be dependent upon the State in its work and shall be responsible to the Financial Chancelry.

Article 54

Everyone shall have the right to work and enjoy the freedom of work.

Everyone shall be free to choose his vocation and occupation, and all jobs and duties shall be accessible to everyone under the same conditions.

Article 55

Every employee shall have the right to a fair remuneration, such as to ensure a free and decent standard of living to him and his family.

Maximum working hours shall be regulated by law.

Every employee shall have the right to a weekly rest and annual holidays with pay, and these rights may not be renounced.

Employees may, in conformity with law, participate in decision-making in the enterprise.

Article 56

The right of employees and of members of their families to social security and social insurance shall be regulated by law and collective agreements.

Rights in connection with child-birth, maternity, paternity and child care shall be regulated by law.

Article 57

The State shall ensure the right to assistance for weak, helpless and other persons unable to meet their basic needs owing to unemployment or incapacity to work.

The State shall devote special care to the protection of disabled persons and their integration into social life.

Receiving humanitarian aid from abroad may not be forbidden.

Article 58

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to free health care, in conformity with law.

Article 59

In order to protect their economic and social interests, all employees shall have the right to form trade unions and shall be free to join and leave them.

Trade unions may form their federations and join international trade union organizations.

Formation of trade unions in the armed forces and the police may be restricted by law.

Employers shall have the right to form associations and shall be free to join or leave them.

Article 60

The right to strike shall be guaranteed.

The right to strike may be restricted in the armed forces, the police, the public administration and the public services as specified by law.

Article 61

The family shall enjoy special protection of the State.

Marriage and legal relations in marriage, common-law marriage and families shall be regulated by law.

Article 62

The State shall protect maternity, children and young people, and shall create social, cultural, educational, material and other conditions promoting the right to a decent life.

Article 63

Parents shall have the duty to bring up, support and educate their children, and shall have the right and freedom to decide independently on the upbringing of their children.

Parents shall be responsible for ensuring the right of their children to a full and harmonious development of their personalities.

Physically and mentally disabled and socially neglected children shall have the right to special care, education and welfare.

Children shall be bound to take care of their old and helpless parents.

The State shall take special care of parentless minors or parentally neglected children.

Article 64

Everyone shall have the duty to protect children and helpless persons.

Children may not be employed before reaching the legally determined age, nor may they be forced or allowed to do work which is harmful to their health or morality.

Young people, mothers, fathers and disabled persons shall be entitled to special protection at work.

Article 65

Primary, secondary and higher education shall be compulsory and free, and shall be equally accessible to everyone according to abilities.

Article 66

Under conditions specified by law, private schools and educational institutions may be established.

Article 67

The autonomy of universities shall be guaranteed.

Universities shall independently decide on their organization and work in conformity with law.

Article 68

Freedom of scientific, cultural and artistic creativity shall be guaranteed.

The State shall stimulate and assist the development of science, culture and the arts.

The State shall protect scientific, cultural and artistic goods as national spiritual values.

Protection of moral and material rights deriving from scientific, cultural, artistic, intellectual and other creative activities shall be guaranteed.

The State shall promote and assist care of physical education and sport.

Article 69

Everyone shall have the right to a healthy life.

The State shall ensure conditions for a healthy environment.

Everyone shall be bound, within their powers and activities, to pay special attention to the protection of public health, nature and environment.

III. ORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT

1. THE HANNOVER PARLIAMENT

Article 70

The Hannover Parliament is a representative body of the people and is vested with the legislative power in the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 71

The Hannover Parliament shall have no less than 100 and no more than 160 members, elected on the basis of direct universal and equal suffrage by secret ballot.

Article 72

Members of the Hannover Parliament shall be elected for a term of four years.

The number of members of the Hannover Parliament, and the conditions and procedures for their election, shall be regulated by law.

Article 73

Elections for members of the Hannover Parliament shall be held not later than 60 days after the expiry of the mandate or dissolution of the Hannover Parliament.

The first session of the Hannover Parliament shall be held not later than 20 days after the completion of the elections.

The Hannover Parliament shall be constituted at the first session by the selection of its President by the majority of its members present.

Article 74

Members of the Hannover Parliament shall have no imperative mandate.

Members of the Hannover Parliament shall receive a regular monetary remuneration and shall have other rights specified by law.

Article 75

Members of the Hannover Parliament shall enjoy immunity.

No representative shall be prosecuted, detained or punished for an opinion expressed or vote cast in the Hannover Parliament.

No representative shall be detained, nor shall criminal proceedings be instituted against him, without the consent of the Hannover Parliament.

A representative may be detained without the consent of the Hannover Parliament only if he has been caught in the act of committing a criminal offence which carries a penalty of imprisonment of more than five years. In such a case, the President of the Hannover Parliament shall be notified thereof.

If the Hannover Parliament is not in session, approval for the detention of a representative, or for the continuation of criminal proceedings against him, shall be given and his right to immunity decided by the credentials-and-immunity committee, such a decision being subject to subsequent confirmation by the Hannover Parliament.

Article 76

The term of office of members of the Hannover Parliament may be extended by law only in the event of war or the cases provided for in Articles 17 and 100 of the Constitution.

Article 77

The Hannover Parliament may be dissolved in order to call early elections if so decided by the majority of all the members.

The King or Queen of the Kingdom may, in conformity with Article 103, dissolve the Hannover Parliament.


Article 78

The Hannover Parliament shall be in regular session twice a year: the first period between January 15 and July 15, and the second period between September 15 and December 15.

The Hannover Parliament shall convene emergency sessions at the request of the Prime Minister, the Defence Council or the majority of its members.

The President of the Hannover Parliament may, upon prior consultation with the parliamentary clubs of members of the parliamentary parties, call it into an emergency session.

Article 79

The Hannover Parliament shall have the President and one or more Vice Presidents.

The internal organization and procedure of the Hannover Parliament shall be regulated by its Standing Rules.

The Standing Rules shall be passed by a majority vote of all the members.


Article 80

The Hannover Parliament shall: - decide on the enactment and amendment of the Constitution; - pass laws; - adopt the state budget; - pass documents which express the policy of the Hannover Parliament; - decide on alternations of the borders of the Kingdom of Hannover; - call referenda; - carry out elections, appointments and reliefs of office, in conformity with the Constitution and law; - supervise the work of the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover and other holders of public authority responsible to the Hannover Parliament, in conformity with the Constitution and law; - conduct other affairs as specified by the Constitution.

The Defence Council shall: - decide on war and peace; - adopt the Strategy of national security and the Strategy of defense of the Kingdom of Hannover; - realize civil control over the armed forces and the security services of the Kingdom of Hannover; - grant amnesty for criminal offenses; - conduct other affairs as specified by the Constitution.

Article 81

Unless otherwise specified by the Constitution, the Hannover Parliament shall make decisions by a majority vote, provided that a majority of representatives are present at the session.

Representatives shall vote in person.

Article 82

Laws (organic laws) which regulate the rights of national minorities shall be passed by the Hannover Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

Laws (organic laws) which elaborate the constitutionally defined human rights and fundamental freedoms, the electoral system, the organization, authority and operation of government bodies and the organization and authority of local and regional self-government shall be passed by the Hannover Parliament by a majority vote of all representatives.

The decision provided by Article 7 section 2 and Article 8 of the Constitution shall be passed by the Hannover Parliament by a two-thirds majority of all representatives.

Article 83

Sessions of the Hannover Parliament shall be public.

Article 84

Each representative of the Hannover Parliament, the parliamentary clubs of representatives and the working bodies of the Hannover Parliament, and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover shall have the right to propose laws.

Article 85

Members of the Hannover Parliament shall have the right to ask the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover and individual ministers questions.

At least one tenth of the representatives of the Hannover Parliament may submit an interpellation on the operation of the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover or some of its individual members.

Questioning and interpellation shall be more specifically regulated by the Standing Rules.

Article 86

The Hannover Parliament may call a referendum on a proposal for the amendment of the Constitution, on a bill, or any other issue within its competence.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may, at the proposal of the Government, call a referendum on a proposal for the amendment of the Constitution or any other issue which he considers to be important for the independence, unity and existence of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The Hannover Parliament shall call a referendum upon the issues from sections 1 and 2 of this Article when so demanded by ten percent of all voters in the Kingdom of Hannover.

At such a referendum, the decision shall be made by the majority of the voters who have voted, provided that the majority of the total number of electors have taken part in the referendum.

Decisions made at referenda shall be binding.

A law on referenda shall be passed.

Article 87

The Hannover Parliament may authorize the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover, for a maximum period of one year, to regulate by decrees certain issues within its competence, except those relating to the elaboration of the constitutionally defined human rights and fundamental freedoms, national rights, the electoral system, the organization, authority and operation of government bodies and local self-government.

Decrees based on statutory authority shall not have a retroactive effect.

Decrees passed on the basis of statutory authority shall cease to be valid after the expiry of the period of one year from the date when such authority was granted, unless otherwise decided by the Hannover Parliament.

Article 88

Laws shall be promulgated by the Prime Minister of the Kingdom within eight days from the date when they were passed in the Hannover Parliament.

If the Prime Minister of the Kingdom considers the promulgated law not in accordance with the Constitution, he may initiate proceedings to review the constitutionality of the law before the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 89

Before coming into force, laws and other rules and regulations of governmental bodies shall be published in the official gazette of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The rules and regulations of bodies vested with public authority shall, before coming into force, be publicized in an accessible way, in accordance with law.

A law shall come into force at the earliest on the eight day after its publication, unless otherwise specified by law for exceptionally justified reasons.

Laws and other regulations of governmental bodies or bodies vested with public authority shall not have a retroactive effect.

Only individual provisions of a law may have a retroactive effect for exceptionally justified reasons.

Article 90

State revenues and expenditures shall be determined by the state budget.

A law whose implementation requires financial funds shall specify the sources of such funds.

Article 91

The Hannover Parliament may form commissions of inquiry regarding any issue of public interest.

The composition, competence and powers of the commissions of inquiry shall be in accord with law.

The chairperson of a commission of inquiry shall be appointed by a majority of representatives from among the representatives of the opposition.

Article 92

The People's Ombudsman, as a commissioner of the Hannover Parliament, shall protect the constitutional and legal rights of citizens in proceedings before the state administration and bodies vested with public authority.

The People's Ombudsman shall be elected by the Hannover Parliament for a term of eight years.

Conditions for the election and the relief of office as well as the scope and mode of work of the Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be regulated by law.

Within the office of the People's Ombudsman, protection of the constitutional and legal rights of citizens in the proceedings before the Ministry of Defense, the armed forces and security services, protection of the rights of citizens before the bodies of the local and regional self-government and protection of the right to the local and regional self-government before the governmental bodies, shall be provided.


2. THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE KINGDOM OF HANNOVER

Article 93

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover shall represent and stand for the Kingdom of Hannover at home and abroad.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall take care of regular and harmonized functioning and stability of the state government.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom is responsible for the defense of independence and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 94

The leader of the political party winning the most seats in the elections for the Hannover Parliament shall be named Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Before assuming duty, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall take a solemn oath before the President of the Constitutional Court swearing loyalty to the Constitution.

The election of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom, the oath and its taking shall be regulated by law.

Article 95

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall not perform any other public or professional duty.

Article 96

In case when the Prime Minister of the Kingdom is temporarily prevented from performing his duties, because of his absence or illness or yearly leave of absence, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may confide the President of the Hannover Parliament to substitute for him. The Prime Minister of the Kingdom decides upon his return to duty.

In case the Prime Minister of the Kingdom is prevented from performing his duties for a longer period of time, because of illness or inability, and particularly if he is unable to decide on confiding his duties to a temporary substitute, the President of the Hannover Parliament shall assume the duty of the temporary Prime Minister of the Kingdom upon the decision of the Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court shall decide thereof upon the proposal of the Government.

In case of death, or resignation which shall be submitted to the President of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover and the President of the Hannover Parliament notified thereof, or when the Constitutional Court determines the reasons for termination of the mandate of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom, the duty of the temporary Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall be taken over by the President of the Hannover Parliament by force of the Constitution.

When the President of the Hannover Parliament as temporary Prime Minister of the Kingdom issues an act on promulgation of the law, the act shall be counter-signed by the Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Elections for the new Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall be held within the term of 60 days from the day the temporary Prime Minister of the Kingdomhas taken over the duty according to section 3 of this Article. This election shall be open only to members of the former Prime Minister's political party with respect to voters and candidates, as it is simultaneously an election for the leadership position of said party.

Article 97

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall: - call elections for the Hannover Parliament and convene their first session; - call referenda, in conformity with the Constitution; - confide the mandate to form the Government to the person who, upon the distribution of the seats in the Hannover Parliament and consultations held, enjoys confidence of the majority of its members; - grant pardons; - confer decorations and other awards specified by law; - perform other duties specified by the Constitution.

Article 98

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover cooperate in formulation and execution of the foreign policy.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall, at the Government's proposal and with the counter-signature of the Deputy Prime Minister, decide on the establishment of diplomatic missions and consular offices of the Kingdom of Hannover abroad.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall, with the prior counter-signature of the Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover, appoint and recall diplomatic representatives of the Kingdom of Hannover, at the proposal of the Government and upon the opinion of the authorized committee of the Hannover Parliament.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall receive letters of credence and the letters of recall from foreign diplomatic representatives.


Article 99

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall appoint and relieve of duty military commanders, in conformity with law.

On the basis of the decision of the Hannover Parliament, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may declare war and conclude peace.

In case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the State, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may, with the counter signature of the Deputy Prime Minister, order the employment of the armed forces even if the state of war has not been declared.

Article 100

During the state of war the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may issue decrees with the force of law on the grounds and within the authority obtained from the Hannover Parliament. If the Hannover Parliament is not in session, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom is authorized to regulate all the issues required by the state of war by decrees with the force of law.

In case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the State, or if the governmental bodies are prevented from performing their constitutional duties regularly, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall, at the proposal of the Deputy Prime Minister and with his counter-signature, issue decrees with the force of law.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall submit decrees with the force of law for approval to the Hannover Parliament as soon as the Parliament is in a position to convene.

If the Prime Minister of the Kingdom does not submit a decree for approval to the Hannover Parliament as required by section 3 of this Article, or if the Hannover Parliament fails to approve it, the decree with the force of law ceases to be in force.

In the case stated in sections 1 and 2 of this Article the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may call a session of the Government and preside over such a session.

Article 101

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may propose to the Government to hold a session and consider certain issues.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may be present at the meeting of the Government and take part in deliberations.

Article 102

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover shall, in accordance with the Constitution and law, cooperate in directing the operations of the security services.

The appointment of the heads of the security services shall, upon a prior opinion of the authorized committee of the Hannover Parliament, be counter-signed by the Prime Minister of the Kingdom and the Deputy Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 103

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom, at the proposal of the Government and with the counter-signature of the Deputy Prime Minister, after consultations with the representatives of the clubs of parliamentary parties, dissolve the Hannover Parliament if, at the proposal of the Government, the Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence to the Government, or if it has failed to approve the state budget within 120 days from the date when it was proposed.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may not, at the proposal of the Government, dissolve the Hannover Parliament if the impeachment proceedings against him for violation of the Constitution have been instituted.

Article 104

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall be impeachable for any violation of the Constitution he has committed in the performance of his duties.

Proceedings for the impeachment of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may be instituted by the Hannover Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

The impeachment of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall be decided upon by the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover by a two-thirds majority vote of all the judges.

The Constitutional Court shall decide upon the impeachment of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom during the term of 30 days form the day of the submission of the proposal to impeach the Prime Minister of the Kingdom for violation of the Constitution.

If the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover sustains the impeachment, the duty of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall cease by force of the Constitution.

Article 105

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall enjoy immunity.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may not be detained nor criminal proceedings may be instituted against him without prior consent of the Constitutional Court.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom may be detained without prior consent of the Constitutional Court only if he has been caught in the act of committing a criminal offence which carries a penalty of imprisonment of more than five years. In such a case the state body which has detained the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall instantly notify the President of the Constitutional Court thereof.

Article 106

In the performance of his duties the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall be assisted by advisory bodies. The members of these bodies shall be appointed and relieved by the Prime Minister of the Kingdom. Appointments contrary to the principle of separation of powers shall not be permitted.

Advisory, expert and other tasks shall be performed by the Office of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom. The organization and competence of the Office shall be regulated by law and internal rules.


3. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF HANNOVER

Article 107

The Government of the Kingdom of Hannover shall exercise executive powers in conformity with the Constitution and law.

Article 108

The Government of the Kingdom of Hannover shall consist of a Prime Minster, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and ministers.

The Prime Minister and other members of the Government may not perform any other public or professional duty without consent of the Government.

Article 109

The person to whom the Prime Minister of the Kingdom confides the mandate to form the Government shall propose its members.

Immediately upon the formation of the Government, but not later than 30 days from the acceptance of the mandate, the mandatary shall present the Government and its program to the Hannover Parliament and demand a vote of confidence to be passed.

The Government shall assume its duty if the vote of confidence is passed by a majority vote of all members of the Hannover Parliament.

The Prime Minister and the members of the Government shall take a solemn oath before the Hannover Parliament. The text of the oath shall be determined by law.

Upon the decision of the Hannover Parliament to express confidence to the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover, the ruling on the appointment of the Prime Minister shall be brought by the President of the Hannover Parliament, and the ruling on the appointment of the members of the Government shall be brought by the Prime Minster with the counter signature of the President of the Hannover Parliament.

Article 110

If the mandatary fails to form the Government within the term of 30 days from the day of the acceptance of the mandate, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom may decide to extend the term for not more than 30 additional days.

If the mandatary fails to form the Government during the extended term, or if the proposed Government fails to obtain confidence of the Hannover Parliament, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall confide the mandate to form the Government to another person.

Article 111

If the Government is not formed in accordance with Articles 109 and 110 of the Constitution, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall appoint a temporary Government and simultaneously call early elections for the Hannover Parliament.

Article 112

The Government of the Kingdom of Hannover shall: - propose legislation and other acts to the Hannover Parliament; - propose the state budget and the annual accounts; - execute laws and other decisions of the Hannover Parliament; - enact decrees to implement the laws; - guide the foreign and internal policies; - direct and control the operation of the state administration; - take care of the economic development of the country; - direct performance and development of the public services; - perform other duties determined by the Constitution and law.

Article 113

The organization, mode of operation and decision-making of the Government shall be regulated by law and the rules of procedure.

Article 114

The Government shall be responsible to the Hannover Parliament.

The Prime Minister and members of the Government shall be jointly responsible for the decisions made by the Government, and shall be personally responsible for their respective competencies.

Article 115

At the proposal of at least one fifth of the members of the Hannover Parliament, a vote of confidence in the Prime Minster, in individual members of the Government, or in the Government as a whole, shall be put in motion.

A vote of confidence in the Government may also be requested by the Prime Minister.

No debate or vote of confidence may be taken before the expiry of seven days from the date when the motion was submitted to the Hannover Parliament.

Debate and vote of confidence shall be carried through not later than 30 days from the day the motion was submitted to the Hannover Parliament.

A no confidence decision shall be accepted if it has been voted for by the majority of the total number of members of the Hannover Parliament.

If the Hannover Parliament rejects the proposal for a vote of no confidence, the representatives who have submitted it may not make the same proposal again before the expiry of six months.

If a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister or in the Government as a whole is passed, the Prime Minister and the Government shall submit their resignation. If the vote of confidence to a new mandatary and the members he proposes for the Government is not passed during the term of 30 days, the President of the Hannover Parliament shall notify thereof the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hannover. After the notification is received the Prime Minister of the Kingdom instantly issue a decision to dissolve the Hannover Parliament, and simultaneously call elections for the Hannover Parliament.

If a vote of no confidence in an individual member of the Government is passed, the Prime Minster may propose to the Hannover Parliament another member for a vote of confidence or the Prime Minister and the Government as a whole may submit their resignation.

In all the cases of resignation of the Prime Minister or the Government section 7 of this Article shall be applied.

Article 116

The organization and responsibilities as well as operation of the state administration shall be regulated by law.

Certain responsibilities of the state administration may be entrusted by law to the bodies of the local and regional self-government and legal bodies vested with public authority.

The status of state officials and the legal status of the state employees shall be regulated by law and other regulations.

4. JUDICIAL POWER

Article 117

Judicial power shall be exercised by courts.

Judicial power shall be autonomous and independent.

Courts shall administer justice according to the Constitution and law.

Article 118

The Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hannover, as a highest court, shall secure uniform application of laws and equal justice to all.

The President of the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be appointed and relieved from duty by the Hannover Parliament at the proposal of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom, with a prior opinion of the general session of the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hannover and of the authorized committee of the Hannover Parliament. The President of the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be appointed for a four-year term of office.

The establishment, jurisdiction, composition and organization of courts and court proceedings shall be regulated by law.

Article 119

Court hearings shall be open to the public and judgments shall be pronounced publicly in the name of the Kingdom of Hannover.

The public may be barred from a hearing or part of it for the reasons necessary in a democratic society in the interest of morals, public order or State security, in particular if minors are tried, or in order to protect private lives of the parties, or in marital disputes and proceedings in connection with guardianship and adoption, or for the purpose of protection of military, official or business secrets and for the protection of the security and defense of the Kingdom of Hannover, but only to the extent which is in the opinion of the court absolutely necessary in the specific circumstances in which the public might be harmful to the interests of justice.

Article 120

In administration of justice lay assessors shall participate in conformity with law.

Article 121

Judges shall enjoy immunity in accordance with the law.

Judges and lay assessors who take part in the administration of justice shall not be called to account for an opinion or a vote given in the process of judicial decision-making unless there exists violation of law on the part of a judge which is criminal offence.

A judge may not be detained in criminal proceedings initiated for a criminal offence committed in performance of his judicial duty without prior consent of the National Judicial Council.

Article 122

Judicial office shall be permanent.

Exceptionally to the provision of section 1 of this Article, at the assuming of judicial duty for the first time, judges shall be appointed for a five-year term. After the renewal of the appointment, the judge assumes his duty as permanent. A judge shall be relieved of his judicial office: - at his own request, - if he has become permanently incapacitated to perform his office, - if he has been sentenced for a criminal offence which makes him unworthy to hold judicial office, - if, in conformity with law, so decides the National Judicial Council due to the commission of an act of serious infringement of discipline, - when reaching seventy years of age.

Against the decision of being relieved from his duty the judge shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Court within the term of 15 days from the day the decision has been served, onto which the Constitutional Court shall decide in the procedure and composition determined by the Constitutional Act on the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Against the decision of the National Judicial Council on disciplinary responsibility, the judge shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover within the term of 15 days from the day the decision has been served. The Constitutional Court shall decide on the appeal in the way and the procedure determined by the Constitutional Act on the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover.

In the cases from sections 4 and 5 of this Article, the Constitutional Court shall decide within the term not longer than 30 days from the day the appeal has been submitted. The decision of the Constitutional Court excludes the right to the constitutional complaint.

A judge shall not be transferred against his will except in the case the Court is abolished or reorganized in conformity with law.

A judge shall not hold an office or perform work defined by law as being incompatible with his judicial office.

Article 123

Judges shall, according to the Constitution and law, be appointed and relieved of duty by the National Judicial Council, which will also decide on all matters concerning their disciplinary responsibilities.

In the process of appointment and relief of judges the National Judicial Council shall obtain the opinion of the authorized committee of the Hannover Parliament.

The National Judicial Council shall consist of eleven members elected by the Hannover Parliament in conformity with law, from among notable judges, attorneys-at-law and university professors of law. The majority of members of the National Judicial Council shall be from the ranks of judges.

Presidents of courts may not be elected as members of the National Judicial Council.

Members of the National Judicial Council shall be elected for a four-year term and no one may be a member of the National Judicial Council for more than two subsequent terms.

The President of the National Judicial Council shall be elected by secret ballot by a majority of the members of the National Judicial Council for a two-year term of office.

The jurisdiction and the proceedings of the National Judicial Council shall be regulated by law.


5. THE OFFICE OF THE PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS

Article 124

The Office of the Public Prosecutions is an autonomous and independent judicial body empowered and due to proceed against those who commit criminal and other punishable offences, to undertake legal measures for protection of the property of the Kingdom of Hannover and to provide legal remedies for protection of the Constitution and law.

The Head Public Prosecutor of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be appointed by the Hannover Parliament at the proposal of the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover and with a prior opinion of the authorized committee of the Hannover Parliament for a four-year term.

At assuming their duty for the first time, Deputy Public Prosecutors shall be appointed for a five-year term. After the renewal of the appointment they shall assume their duty as permanent.

Deputy Public Prosecutors shall, in conformity with the Constitution and law, be appointed, relieved and decided upon their disciplinary responsibility by the National Council of Public Prosecutions. The National Council of Public Prosecutions shall be elected by the Hannover Parliament in the way and procedure determined by law. The majority of members of the National Council of Public Prosecutions shall be from ranks of Deputy Public Prosecutors.

Head officials of the public prosecutions' offices may not be elected as members of the National Council of Public Prosecutions.

Jurisdiction, organization and the mode of operation of the National Council of the Public Prosecutions shall be regulated by law.

The establishment, organization, jurisdiction and competence of the Office of Public Prosecutions shall be regulated by law.


IV. THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE KINGDOM OF HANNOVER

Article 125

The Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall consist of thirteen judges elected by the Hannover Parliament for a term of eight years from among notable jurists, especially judges, public prosecutors, lawyers and university professors of law.

Candidacy proceedings and the proposal for the judges of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover to the Hannover Parliament shall be carried out by the committee of the Hannover Parliament, authorized for the constitutional issues.

The Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall elect its President for a term of four years.

Article 126

A judge of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall not perform any other public or professional duties.

Judges of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of HAnnover shall enjoy same immunity as members of the Hannover Parliament.

Article 127

A judge of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover may be relieved of office before the expiry of the term for which he has been elected if he requests to be relieved, if he is sentenced to imprisonment, or if he is permanently incapacitated from performing his duties, as established by the Court itself.

Article 128

The Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall:

- decide on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; - decide on the conformity of other regulations with the Constitution and laws; - may decide on constitutionality of laws and constitutionality of laws and other regulations which have lost their legal force, provided that from the moment of losing the legal force until the submission of a request or a proposal to institute the proceedings not more than one year has passed; - decide on constitutional complaints against the individual decisions of governmental bodies, bodies of local and regional self-government and legal entities with public authority, when these decisions violate human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the right to local and regional self-government guaranteed by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover; - observe the realization of constitutionality and legality and notify the HannoverParliament on the instances of unconstitutionality and illegality observed thereto; - decide on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches; - decide, in the conformity with the Constitution, on the impeachment of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom; - supervise the constitutionality of the programs and activities of political parties and may, in conformity with the Constitution, ban their work; - supervise the constitutionality and legality of elections and national referenda, and decide on the electoral disputes which are not within the jurisdiction of courts; - perform other duties specified by the Constitution.

Article 129

If the Constitutional Court ascertains that the authorized body has not enacted a rule or a regulation needed for the application of the Constitution, law or other regulation, being bound to enact such a regulation, it shall notify the Government thereof, while the Hannover Parliament shall be notified about the regulations which the Government has been obliged to enact.

Article 130

The Constitutional Court of the Kingdom Hannover shall repeal a law if it finds it to be unconstitutional.

The Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall repeal or annul any other regulation if it finds it to be unconstitutional or illegal.

In the cases from Article 128 section 1 line 3 of the Constitution, if the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover finds that a law has not been in conformity with the Constitution and law or that another regulation has not been in conformity with the Constitution and law, it shall enact a decision on ascertaining unconstitutionality or illegality.

Article 131

The procedure and conditions for the election of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover and the termination of their office, conditions and time-limits for instituting proceedings for the assessment of the constitutionality and legality, procedure and legal effects of its decisions, protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, and other issues important for the performance of duties and work of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover, shall be regulated by the Constitutional Act.

The Constitutional Act shall be passed in accordance with the procedure determined for amending the Constitution.

The internal organization of the Constitutional Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be regulated by its rules of procedure.


V. LOCAL AND REGIONAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Article 132

Citizens shall be guaranteed the right to local and regional self-government.

The right to a local and regional self-government shall be realized through local, respectively regional representative bodies, composed of members elected on free elections by secret ballot on the grounds of direct, equal and general voting rights.

Citizens may directly participate in administering local affairs, through meetings, referenda and other forms of direct decision-making, in conformity with law and statute.

Article 133

Municipalities and towns shall be units of local self-government, and their areas shall be determined in the way prescribed by law. Other units of local self-government may be provided by law.

Provinces shall be units of regional self-government. The area of a province is determined in the way prescribed by law.

Forms of local self-government may in conformity with law, be established in localities and parts thereof.

Article 134

Units of local self-government shall carry out the affairs of local jurisdiction by which the needs of citizens are directly fulfilled, and in particular the affairs related to the organization of localities and housing, area and urban planning, public utilities, child care, social welfare, primary health services, education and elementary schools, culture, physical education and sports, customer protection, protection and improvement of the environment, fire protection and civil defense.

Units of regional self-government shall carry out the affairs of regional significance, and in particular the affairs related to education, health service, area and urban planning, economic development, traffic and traffic infrastructure and the development of network of educational, health, social and cultural institutions.

Affairs of local and regional jurisdiction shall be regulated by law. At the allotment of the affairs, priority shall be given to the bodies which are closest to the citizens.

At the determination of the local and regional self-government jurisdiction, the scope and nature of affairs and the requirements of efficiency and economy shall be taken into account.

Article 135

Units of local and regional self-government shall have the right, within the limits provided by law, to regulate autonomously by their statutes the internal organization and jurisdiction of their bodies and accommodate them to the local needs and potentials.

Article 136

In performing the affairs within their jurisdiction, units of local and regional self-government shall be autonomous and subject only to the review of the constitutionality and legality by the authorized governmental bodies.

Article 137

Units of local and regional self-government shall have the right to their own revenues and have them on their free disposal in performing affairs within their jurisdiction.

Revenues of local and regional units of self-government shall be proportional to their authorities provided by the Constitution and law.

The State shall assist financially weaker units of local and regional self-government in conformity with law.


VI. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

Article 138

International agreements shall be concluded, in conformity with the Constitution, law and the rules of international law, depending on the nature and contents of the international agreement, within the authority of the HAnnover Parliament, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 139

International agreements which entail the passage of amendment of laws, international agreements of military and political nature, and international agreements which financially commit the Kingdom of Hannover shall be subject to ratification by the Hannover Parliament.

International agreements which grant international organization or alliances powers derived from the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover, shall be subject to ratification by the Hannover Parliament by two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

The Prime Minister of the Kingdom shall sign the documents of ratification, admittance, approval or acceptance of international agreements ratified by the Hannover Parliament in conformity with sections 1 and 2 of this Article.

International agreements which are not subject of ratification by the Hannover Parliament are concluded by the Prime Minister of the Kingdom at the proposal of the Government, or by the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover.

Article 140

International agreements concluded and ratified in accordance with the Constitution and made public, and which are in force, shall be part of the internal legal order of the Kingdom of Hannover and shall be above law in terms of legal effects. Their provisions may be changed or repealed only under conditions and in the way specified in them or in accordance with the general rules of international law.


2. ASSOCIATION AND SECESSION

Article 141

Procedure for the association of the Kingdom of Hannover into alliances with other states may be instituted by at least one-third of the representatives of the Hannover Parliament, the President of the Kingdom and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover.

It is prohibited to initiate any procedure for the association of the Kingdom of Hannover into alliances with other states if such association leads, or might lead, to a renewal of a Holy Roman state community or to any Roman state form of any kind.

Any association of the Kingdom of Hannover shall first be decided upon by the Hannover Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

Any decision concerning the association of the Kingdom of Hannover shall be made on a referendum by a majority vote of the total number of electors in the State.

Such a referendum shall be held within 30 days from the date when the decision has been rendered by the Hannover Parliament.

The provisions of this Article concerning association shall also relate to the conditions and procedure for the disassociation of the Kingdom of Hannover.


VII. AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

Article 142

Amendments to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover may be proposed by at least one- fifth of the members of the Hannover Parliament, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom and the Government of the Kingdom of Hannover.


Article 143

The Hannover Parliament shall decide by a majority vote of all representatives whether or not to start proceedings for the amendment of the Constitution.

Draft amendments to the Constitution shall be determined by a majority vote of all the members of the Hannover Parliament.

Article 144

The decision to amend the Constitution shall be made by a two-thirds majority vote of all the members of the Hannover Parliament.

Article 145

Amendment of the Constitution shall be promulgated by the Hannover Parliament.


VIII. CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

Article 146

By entering into force of the Amendment of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover the function of the House of Provinces of the Hannover Parliament as well as the duty of the incumbent president and members of the National Judicial Council and the President of the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Hannover shall cease.

Article 147

The Hannover Parliament shall pass the Constitutional Act on the Implementation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hannover.

MinistryMinisterium vun...Department(s) of...
Prime MinisterPremierministerthe Interior
Social Ministries:CultureKulturEducation, Science
LabourArbeitsmarktSocial Welfare
HealthGesundheetthe Environment
InformationUtkunftCommunications
Economic Ministries:FinanceFinanzierungPlanning
TourismTourismusTransportation
AgricultureLandwertschaffNutrition
Industry & TradeFlied un HannelMining, Energy
Political Ministries:JusticeGerechdigkeitSecurity
Foreign RelationsButen-VerbundenInternational Organisations
Military Ministry:DefenceVerdeffendeernArmy, Navy, Air Force


Given at the Royal Capital of Hannover by King Johann VIII, the Royal Sovereign of the people of Hannover.

Personal tools
discussion