Subdivisions of Japan
The Empire of Japan is subdivided on several levels. The Empire itself is first divided into four first-level divisions, three kingdoms (Yamato, Corea, and Lùquiù) and one republic (Ezo).
Each primary unit is subdivided in its own way
The Kingdom of Yamato is first subdivided into 7 regions, also known by their Japanese name dò. These regions enjoy a fairly high degree of autonomy. They were created with the ratification of the present Constitution in 1964.
Each region is subdivided into a number of provinces, 45 in all. These are referred to in Japanese with one of two terms, fu and quen. Historically, these were distinct entities, treated differently under Japanese law, with fu enjoying greater autonomy than quen, and even as recent as the establishment of the regions, they were distinct. At the time the regions were established, the province containing the regional capital was promoted to a fu. Today, however, most of the regions treat fu and quen identically.
Provinces are further subdivided into cities and districts (gun).
Large cities are subdivided into wards (cu), administrative subdivisions with no real autonomy. Cities or wards are subdivided into matxi or txò. Matxi or txò are units used for addresses, and not all cities have them. Below the matxi/txò are numbered txòme (districts), bantxi (blocks), and ban (house numbers), generally written as a string of numbers, as, for example, 3-5-12.
There are two types of cities
- City - a normal city generally has at least 50,000 people, and when a town reaches that population, it commonly becomes a city. A city may drop below 50,000 people without losing the status of city.
- Designated City - A designated city is a city specially designated by the government, which is largely independant of the provincial government, carrying out many of the functions of the provincial government itself. To qualify, a city must have at least 500,000 people and have important economic and industrial functions. Designated Cities are similar to the Metropolitan Cities of Corea.
Historically districts were an administrative unit. In modern times, however, they are used solely as part of the address system. They are subdivided into towns and villages, which are used as administrative units covering surrounding unpopulated areas. Towns and villages use similar numbering systems as cities, but may drop one or two of the numbers.
In some rural areas, towns and villages sometimes form federations, sharing certain responsibilities, while retaining their distinct identities. Federations are always contained within a single province, but may cross district borders. Municipal federations are a fairly recent development, and vary according to their federation charter.
Ezo and Lùquiù
Ezo and Lùquiù use the same system as Yamato, but without the regional level.
Corea is firstly subdivided into 8 provinces (道, to) and several metropolitan Cities (廣域市, Kuangyksi). This is semi-proposal
Provinces are subdivided into cities (市, si) and districs (郡, kun).
Metropolitan Cities are divided into wards (區, ku) and in some cases districts (郡, kun).
Large cities (over 500,000 population) are divided into wards (區, ku). Smaller cities are divided into neighborhoods (洞, toñ)
Districts are subdivided into towns (邑, yp) and sub-districts (面, mien)
Wards are divisions of major cities (over 500,000 population). They enjoy greater autonomy than the wards of most Yamato cities. They are divided into neighborhoods (洞, toñ)
Towns are subdivided into villages (里, ri)
Districts are the rural areas of districts, having less population than towns. They are divided into villages (里, ri)
Neighborhoods are the smallest unit of a city to have administrative functions. They typically cover a few blocks
Villages are the smallest unit of rural government to have any significant population
Chart of subdivisions of Corea
- City (over 500,000)
- City (under 500,000)
- City (over 500,000)
- Metropolitan City