Turkestani and Uygur Transcriptions

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Roman Alphabet

The languages of Turkestan and Uyguristan are written in a script known as Soğdo in Turkestan and Uygur in Uyguristan. However, when writing in the Roman alphabet, a standard transliteration scheme resembling *here's Atatürk alphabet is preferred by the govenments of the two nations.

The consonants /p/ /b/ /m/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /k/ /g/ /q/ /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /x/ /h/ /l/ /r/ are all written with the expected Roman letters. The sounds /∫/, its voiced equivalent, /ŋ/, /ɣ/, /j/ and the Turcoman phoneme /θ/ are written with ş, j, ņ, ğ, y and ţ respectively. C and ç are used to represent the /ts/ of Russian loan-words and /t∫/.

The vowel inventory is also more complex than the Latin alphabet allows for without digraphs or diacritics. /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ and /u/ are all written with the standard Roman characters. The additional sounds /æ/, /ɯ/, /œ/ and /y/ are represented by ä, ı, ö and ü respectively.

Phonemic length in the Kırğız language is represented by doubling for the long vowels.

Cyrillic Alphabet

For writing Turkic languages in Cyrillic, Turkestan has a standard transliteration scheme which makes use of several obsolete Russian letters such as Koppa (Ҁ), Yat (Ѣ) and Izhitsa (Ѵ) in new roles. The new letter Ў ў is used for the rare /w/ sound at the beginning of some words. Uyguristan prefers the new characters Ҳ ҳ for /q/ and Ӱ ӱ for /y/, and does not use the characters representing /θ/, /w/ or /ɣ/ at all.

Cyrillic letter (caps): A Б В Г Ғ Д Е Ж З И I К Л М Н Ҥ О П Ҁ Р С Т У Ў Ү Ф Х Ѡ Ц Ч Һ Ш Ѣ Ѳ Ѵ Ю Я
Cyrillic letter (lowercase): a б в г ғ д е ж з и i к л м н ҥ о п ҁ р с т у ў ү ф х ѡ ц ч һ ш ѣ ѳ ѵ ю я
Latin transliteration (caps): A B V G Ğ D E J Z Y İ K L M N Ņ O P Q R S T U U Ü F X Ö C Ç H Ş Ä Ţ I YU YA
Typical sound value: a b v g ɣ d e ʒ z j i k l m n ŋ o p q r s t u w y f x œ ts h ʃ æ θ ɯ ju ja