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The Kingdom of Lo
Lo Manthang
Lo flag.PNG Lo roundel.PNG
state flag roundel
Royal Capital Mantang
Coordinates latitude: 29° 10' 60" N
longitude: 83° 58' 0" E
Administrative Capital Jomsom
Coordinates latitude: 28° 47' 0" N
longitude: 83° 43' 50" E
Government absolute monarchy
Head of State and Government His Royal Highness Ashtok Bista (2005)
Legislature Privy Council (Lyodo Tshogdu)
Demonym Lotian
Foundation 1380
House of Ama Pal 1425
League of Nations 1975
Himalayan Confederacy 1975
Himalayan Postal Union 1978
Constitution 2006
Area 10,293 km²
3,974 mi²
Population 54,113 (2010)
Ethnicities Bhutia 53%
Lepcha 25%
Limbu 12%
Nepali 10%
Official Tibetan, Lepcha, Limbu
Other Nepali
Official Bön 94%
Other Shaivism 6%
Currency 1 Himalayan Rupee (Rs) = 20 annas (a) = 240 paise (p)
Time zone UTC +5:00
DST not observed
International Registration Number LO
Telephone Code 445
Organizations League of Nations
Commission on Very Small States
Himalayan Confederacy
Official soccer
Other cricket


Lo, History of

The Rajas of Lo


  • The Raja of Lo has the style of His Royal Majesty.
  • The wife of the raja, the rani, has the style of Her Royal Majesty.
  • The heir apparent, the raj kumar, has the style of His Royal Highness.
  • The younger sons and daughters of the raja have the style of Their Royal Highnesses.

Rule of Succession

Male primogeniture among the legitimate descendants of Raja Ama Pal.


Mustang is a corruption of the Tibetan Mun Tan which means fertile plain. It is found in the name of the royal capital Manthang. Lo is from the Tibetan lho, southern. Thus, the Rajadom of Lo means the southern rajadom.


  • The Kingdom of Lo is an absolute monarchy. The raja gyalpo is advised by a privy council (lodyo tshogdu) which consists of the three provincial governors (lumbo), four of the prefects (dzongnpon) (elected from among their membership), and the royal abbot (je khenpo).
  • There is also a family council which the raja gyalpo consults on matters concerning the royal family.
  • The Kingdom is comprised of three provinces (dzongdey), each of which is governed by a hereditary governor (lumbo) whose powers are limited by an elected provincial council.
  • Each province is divided into several prefectures (dzongkhag), each governed by an elected prefect (tshonpon). Each prefecture has a prefectural council whose members are elected by universal sufferage.
  • The town of Lo Mantang in the province of Mustang is the gyal-sa (the royal residence). It is independent of any province, being governed by the raja gyalpo himself.
  • The town of Jomson in the province of Mustang is the provincial capital and the administrative capital and the seat of the legislative and judicial branches of the government. It is independent of any province, being governed by the National Assembly (tshogdu).
  • The lumbos, who serve at court, are the only Lotians with the right to marry into the royal house.
  • The monasteries of the rajadom are governed by the the royal abbot of Lo.



Capital Area Population Prefecture
Mustang (M) Jomsom 3,573 km²
1,380 mi²
14,000 Lomantang (ML)
Marpha (MM)
Dolpa (D) Dunai 22,043 km²
8,511 mi²
29,000 Phoksundo (DP
Chharka (DC)
Dunai (DD)
Saldang (DS)
Manang (M) Chame 2,246 km²
867 mi²
9,000 Nar (MN)
Manang (MG)
Chame (MC)
  • Thus, the total area of the rajadom is 27,862 km² (10,758 mi²), the same size as *here's* Haiti.


  • The Kingdom of Lo is contiguous with *here's* Nepali districts of Mustang, Dolpo, and Manang.

The Treaty of Kathmandu between the Kingdom of Nepal and the Kingdom of Lo, 1790

  • By means of this Treaty the Kingdom of Nepal restores sovereignty over the districts of Dolpo and Manang to the People of the Kingdom of Lo in the Person of His Highness Wanggyal Dorje who is recognized as a sovereign ruler with the hereditary title of Gyalpo Raja of Lo.
  • These sovereignties are granted in perpetuity.
  • The Kingdom of Nepal shall continue to guarantee the military security of the Kingdom of Lo. The Kingdom of Lo in turn agrees not to engage in any activity that would compromise or endanger the national security of the Kingdom of Nepal.
  • Ambassadors to the Kingdom of Nepal shall likewise be accepted as ambassadors to the Kingdom of Lo. They must, however, upon acceptance of their credentials by the Maharajadhiraja of Nepal, also present their credentials to the Raja Gyalpo. Without this recognition, that country shall be deemed not to have entered into diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Lo.
  • These accredited ambassadors and their families and staffs shall be given the same immunity as if they were in the Kingdom of Nepal.
    • Diplomatic immunity is accorded neither to the members of the ambassador's family nor to diplomatic staff if they are accused of a violation of the Law in the Kingdom of Lo.
  • The Kingdom of Nepal agrees to accept students into its institutions of higher learning at the rates of Nepali students.
  • Kingdom of Nepal Customs shall not levy duties on goods imported by citizens of the Kingdom of Lo and destined for use in the Kingdom of Lo.

Physical description


  • The Kingdom of Lo is an enchanting land of windswept vistas, red walled monasteries, and feudal towns, located on the Central Asian plateau. It lies between Tibet on the north, and the Nepali districts of Dolpa to the west, Myagdi to the south, and Manang to the east. It is an extension of the Tibetan plateau with an average elevation of over 3,000 m. Located to the north of the highest mountains Dhaulagiri and Annapurna and to the north of the main Himalayan range and geographically part of the Tibetan highlands, it is roughly 80 km long (north-south) and 45 km at its widest giving it an area of 3,573 sq. km.
  • The kingdom lies in the Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, an area of 121,300 square kilometres (46,800 sq mi), extending along the north and south faces of the Himalaya Range from the Kali Gandaki Gorge eastwards through Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan, and on into India's Arunachal Pradesh state, and northernmost Myanmar.
  • The alpine shrub and meadows lie between approximately 4,000 and 5,500 metres (13,000 and 18,000 ft) elevation. Permanent ice and snow lie above 5,500 metres (18,000 ft). The Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests lie below 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) along the southern slopes of the range, from Lo to Bhutan.
  • The main feature of the Kingdom of Lo is the Kali Gandaki river, its valley and tributaries. It runs north-east to south-west towards Nepal Terai, bisecting the country. The river was once the major trade route between Tibet and India, especially for salt. Part of the river valley, the Thak Khola, a downfaulted graben, is the deepest gorge in the world. According to the difference between the river elevation and these peaks, this is the world's deepest gorge. The gorge separates the major peaks Dhaulagiri (8,167 m/26,795 ft) to the west and Annapurna (8,091 m/26,545 ft) to the east. The river runs at elevations between 1,300 and 2,600 metres (4,300 and 8,500 ft), 5,500 to 6,800 metres (18,000–22,300 ft) lower than the peaks. The river is older than the Himalayas. As tectonic activity forced the mountains higher, the river cut down through the uplift. The river rises along the Tibet border and the coincident Ganges-Brahmaputra divide and flows south through the Rajadom. The gorge begins at Kagbeni where the Himalayan ranges begin to close in. The river then continues southwards past Jomsom, Marpha and Tukuche to the deepest part of the gorge in the area of Lete. The gorge then broadens past Dana and Tatopani towards Beni.
  • The landscape is of indescribable vastness and beauty, a vast high valley, arid and dry. The valley is characterized by eroded canyons, colorful rock formations with a barren, desert-like appearance. The hills tend to be great red fluted cliffs of tiny round stones cemented together by mud. One of the most fascinating features of the Rajadom of Lo is the thousands of cliff dwellings, some of which look completely inaccessible. Rimmed by more than 20,000 snowcapped peaks and bathed in hues of orange and red rocks with sporadic fields of vibrant green, yellow and red of barley, maize, and buckwheat, the Rajadom of Lo is a step back to a simpler time.
  • The countryside is similar to the Tibetan plateau with its endless expanses of yellow and grey rolling hills eroded by wind. Strong winds often blow across the valley in the afternoon, generally subsiding at night. Lying in the rain shadow of the Himalaya, Lo has much less rain than Nepal. Annual precipitation is between 250 and 400 mm. During the monsoon the skies are cloudy and there is some rain. In the winter there is usually snow; sometimes as much as 30 or 40 cm accumulating on the ground.
  • Villages are several hours apart and appear in the distance almost as mirages; during the summer season, after the crops are planted, they are green oases in the desert-like landscape.





National symbols

  • National mammal: yak (Bos grunniens)
  • National bird: blue rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius]
  • National flower: Mann's phalaenopsos (Phalaenopsis mannii)
  • National flag:
    • The hoist half of the flag is white, the color of the snows on the sacred Himalayas, which symbolizes the secular tradition of the Rajadom. The auspicious Parasol in the blue color of peace symbolizes His Majesty the King, whose noble actions enhance the Rajadom. Hence, it symbolizes that His Majesty is protector of the people of the Rajadom and the upholder of the secular foundations of the Rajadom.
    • The fly half of the flag is maroon, the color of the robes of the monks and symbolizes the spiritual tradition. The golden dharma wheel, with the gankyil in the center, symbolizes the flourishing of the Buddhist teachings in the Rajadom.
    • The pale wavy green symbolizes the Gandaki River that flows through the Rajadom.
    • The lung ta (wind horse) flies from fly to hoist symbolizing that the Buddhist tradition infuses the government of the Rajadom.
  • National emblem: Per pale white and maroon, a pale wavy green, a wind horse white courant.
    • For a crest, an auspicious parasol blue.
    • For supporters, standing on a grassy compartment semy of Mann's phaelaenopsos, on either side a yak rampant guardant proper, each charged on the shoulder with a Dharma wheel.
  • National dish: momos (dumplings)
  • National instrument: gyaling
  • National colors: azure and gold

Lotian public holidays

Date Name Notes
1 January Constitution Day Remembrance of the Gyalpo's decretal of the Constitution in 2006
5 March 2015 Chotrul Düchen Butter Lamp Festival
18 February 2015 Losar New Year - a 3-day festival of which only the first day is a legal holiday
21 March The King's Birthday Father's Day - His Majesty was born in 1957
25 May 2015 Suga Dawa Düchen The Buddha's Birth, Enlightenment, and Parinirvana
10 July 2015 Guru Rinpoche's Birthday He transmitted Vajrayana Buddhism to the Himalayan nations
28 August 2015 Ullambana Ancestor Day
1st Monday in September Election Day In the even-numbered years; local and federal alternating, e.g., local in 2010, federal in 2012.
22 September 2015 Thri-bab Blessed Rainy Day
13 October 2015 Dashain Victory of the Goddess Durga
6 November The King's Coronation His Majesty was crowned in 2005
12 December The Queen's Birthday Mother's Day - Her Majesty was born in 1958




License Plates

  • Vehicle registration plates are issued by the provincial governments.
  • The vehicle registration plates of the Rajadom of Lo are composed of three Latin letters and four digits embossed in blue on a golden background. They measure six inches by twelve inches.
  • ? is printed along the top of the plate, Lo along the bottom.
  • There is a three-letter prefix. The first two letters represent the prefecture where the vehicle is garaged.
  • The second letter designates the vehicle's use.
? (?) – privately owned
? (?) – government owned
? (?) – company owned, including taxi cabs.
? (?) – police
? (?) – military
  • The plates shall be issued in sequential order from 0001 to 9999. When 9999 is reached, an alphanumeric designation shall be used: A001 to A999, B001 to B999, etc.
  • A golden sticker with blue digits gives the expiration date of the plate, the number of the month in the lower left corner, the year in the lower right corner.
  • License plates for vehicles belonging to the diplomatic corps shall use three letters and three digits. The letters are those of the nations' three-letter country code. The numbers shall run from 001 to 999. Cars bearing these plates have diplomatic immunity.
  • These plates are to be placed on both the front and the back of the vehicle, with the exception of bicycles, motorcycles, and animal-drawn conveyances.
  • If the vehicle is sold, inherited or totally destroyed, the plates are returned to the Department of Motor Vehicles. A new owner must re-register the vehicle.

Public Welfare



Flora and Fauna

  • The mountains are home to some 100 species of mammals including snow leopard, musk deer, Tibetan argali, Tibetan wolf, Tibetan fox; 474 species of birds; 39 species of reptiles and 22 species of amphibians; as well as the mythical mehti (abominable snowman). A total of 1,226 species of plants can be found in the mountains including 38 orchid species and nine rhododendron species