The Founding Meeting
- During the week of November 15, 1948, the eight Swahili emirs, feeling that it would be in their best interests to form a united front, met to discuss the future of their emirates in preparation for the independence to be granted them in the following year. After three days of discussion, the following propositions were deemed acceptable by the eight emirs.
- 1. The seven emirs will transfer the sovereignty of their emirates to a federal government to be formed with the Emir of Zanzibar as the head of state and the head of government of a unitary state.
- 2. The seven emirs will become governors (gavana) of the seven provinces which were originally their emirates. They have these responsibilities:
- a. to represent, not only the regional, but also the federal government in their provinces.
- b. to lead governmental services in their particular provinces, based upon the policies that have been made together with the Provincial Parliament.
- c. to be responsible for law and order, security and emergency action.
- d. to guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of municipal and provincial governments.
- 3. They will receive a salary as civil servants.
- 4. The will retain the title "emir" (mkuu) and will use the style "highness" (ukuu).
- 5. They will retain the custom of dynastic succession that is proper to their particular houses.
- 6. In default of a lawful heir, the title of emir will pass to the sultan and the administration of the province to the federal government.
Zanzibar, Constitution of
- Zanzibar is a unitary state divided into eight provinces (mkoa).
|Pemba (P)||Wete|| 988 km²|
|~410,000|| Wete (Wete) (PW)|
Chake-Chake (Chake-Chake) (PC)
|Pemban||Aerodrome at Chake-Chake.|
|Unguja (U)||Zanzibar|| 2,461 km²|
|~1.300,000|| Mkokotoni (Mkokotoni) (UM)|
Zanzibar (Zanzibar) (UZ)
|Zanzibari||Aerodrome at Zanzibar.|
|Mafia (M)||Kilindoni|| 435 km²|
|~47,000||Mafian||Aerodrome at Kilindoni.|
|Komori (K)||Moroni|| 2,408 km²|
|~1,000,000|| Ngazidja (Moroni) (KN)|
Mwali (Fomboni) (KM)
Nzwani (Mutsamudu) (KZ)
|Comorian||Aerodromes at Moroni and Mamudzu.|
|Tanga (T)||Tanga City|| 8,892 km²|
|~686,000|| Muheza (Tanga City) (TM)|
Pangani (Pangani City) (TP)
|Tangan||Aerodrom at Tanga City.|
|Pwani (W)||Mzizima|| 12,243 km²|
|~14,000,000|| Bagamoyo (Bagamoyo City) (WB)|
Kibaha (Mzizima) (WK)
Mkuranga (Mkuranga City) (WM)
Rufiji (Monoro) (WR)
|Pwanian||Aerodrome at Mzizima.|
|Lindi (L)||Lindi City|| ~66,000 km²|
|~290,000|| Kilwa (Kinyonga) (LK)|
Lindi (Lindi) (LL)
|Lindan||Aerodrome at Lindi City.|
|Nangade (N)||Palma|| 36,000 km²|
|~810,000|| Nangade (Nangade) (NN)|
Palma (Palma) (NP)
|Nangadi||Aerodrome at Palma.|
Thus, the total area of the sultanate is 129,427 km² (49,579 mi²), slightly smaller than *here's* Nicaragua and slightly larger than *here's* Malawi; slightly larger than the American state of Mississippi.
Zanzibar is bordered:
- on the north by Kenya
- the border extends from a point midstream at the mouth of the Umba River, east along parallel 4°40'50" to the 46th meridian; and west midstream along the course of the Umba River to its headwaters, thence along parallel ? to the Pangani River; thence midstream along the Pangani River and its tributary the Kikuletwa River to the 37th meridian.
- on the east by the Indian Ocean
- on the south by Mozambique
- the border extends from a point midstream at the mouth of the Ruvuma River, west midstream along the course of the Ruvuma River to the 37th meridian.
- on the west by Tanganyika; the border being the 37th meridian.
Islamic Holy Days
- The names of the Islamic months have been adapted to KiSwahili phonology.
- Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, the months advance 11 days each year. When an Islamic legal holiday falls on a Buddhist or civil legal holiday, the latter are transferred to the following Sunday.
|Mawlid||17 Rabalawal||The observance of the birthday of Muhammad. A legal holiday.|
|Sikukuu ya Mfunguo Mosi||1 Shawal||Marks the end of [[Wikipedia:Ramadan|Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. A legal holiday.|
|Tamasha ya Sadaka||10-13 Dulhija||Honors the willingness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son as an act of submission to God's command. Only the 13 is a legal holiday.|
|Islamic New Year||1 Muharam|
- The Buddhism of the Sultanate is an esoteric mixture of Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism.
- Common practices include:
- the burning of incense while praying
- paying respect to ancestors on the Qingming festival
- belief in the existence of ghosts and hell
- performance of religious rites to bring peace to the dead
- vegetarianism and compassion towards all living beings. The Zanzibari Buddhists, in order to preserve their traditions, have become very conservative in their religious practices so that, those who own restaurants, only serve vegetarian food.
- Buddhists do not live in the country, but only in the cities.
- There are one or more Buddhist temples in all the major cities.
|Lantern Festival||Sunday after the new moon after January 21||Marks the final day of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations. Moved from the traditional date. A legal holiday.|
|Parinirvana Day||Saturday after February 15||It celebrates the day when the Buddha is said to have achieved Parinirvana, or complete Nirvana, upon the death of his physical body. Moved to the Saturday after the traditional date.|
|April 4 or 5||15th day after the vernal equinox. On this day Buddhists visit the burial sites of their ancestors to pray for them. They clean the sites and offer food, tea, wine, chopsticks, joss paper, and/or libations to them.|
|The Buddha's birthday||First Saturday of May||Buddhists visit their temple, bring food to the monks, light incense, bathe the Buddha.|
|Bodhi Day||December 21-28||Saturday after the winter solstice. Commemorates the day on which the Buddha experienced enlightenment.|
- The work week in Zanzibar is Sunday through Thursday, with Friday and Saturday as the weekend.
- Fixed holidays which fall on Friday are transferred to Thursday. Those which fall on Saturday are transferred to Sunday.
|1 Rabanathi||Independence Day||Independence from CEA on 1/1/1952.|
|3rd Sunday in Junadalula||Father's day|
|11 Junadakira||Constitution Day|
|3rd Sunday in Rajab||Sultan's birthday|
|1st Sunday in Shaban||Buddha's birthday||Birth of the Buddha|
|6 Ramadan||Coronation Day|
|1 Shawal||Sikukuu ya Mfunguo Mosi||Eid al-Fitr|
|3rd Sunday in Dulkada||Mother's Day|
|Dulhija||Tamasha ya Sadaka||Eid al-Adha. Only the 10th is a legal holiday.|
|1 Muharam||Labor Day|
|3rd Sunday in Safar||Thanksgiving Day||Based on the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival.|
|3rd Sunday in Rabalawal||Kuzaliwa kwa Muhammad||Birth of Mohammad|
Styles and Titles
- The Sovereign: Swahili personal name (ism), Muslim theophoric name, mwana/binti wa patronym (nasab), Al family name, Sultan(a) of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of His/Her Majesty (Enzi Yake).
- The present sovereign of the Sultanate is Enzi Yake Munira Abdunnabi binti wa Ikeno Al Akida.
- The female consort of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikha of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of Her Majesty (Enzi Yake).
- The male consort of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikh of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of His Majesty (Enzi Yake).
- The Heir Apparent: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikh of Pemba; with the style of His Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
- The Heir Presumptive: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
- The Heiress Apparent: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikha of Pemba; with the style of Her Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
- The younger sons of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Highness (Ukuu Wake).
- The daughters of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of Her Highness (Ukuu Wake).
- The brothers of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Highness (Ukuu Wake).
- The sisters of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of Her Highness (Ukuu Wake).
- The husbands of the sisters of the Sovereign: Sayyid1 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.
- The wives of the brothers of the Sovereign: Sayyida Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.
- Other male members of the Royal Family, being descendants of former Sultans in the male line: Habib2 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name .
- Other female members of the Royal Family, being descendants of former Sultans in the male line: Habiba3 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.
1 In Zanzibar Sayyid no longer denotes a descendant of Mohammad; it has become an honorific title for certain in-laws of the royal family.
2 In Zanzibar Habib is no longer an honorific title to address a Muslim scholar; it has become an honorific title for more distant relatives in the royal family.
3 Habib is an Arabic male name, but it has been given a feminine suffix in KiSwahili.
- Traffic moves to the left.
- Since its independence in 1949 Zanzibar has made steady progress in building roads in the cities and link the major cities of the Sultanate. In 1973 the Interprovincial Highway, a limited access highway, was completed linking Tanga City in the north to Palma in the south. It is numbered Interprovincial Highway 1 (BM-1, Barabara za Mkoa). Spur routes connect Sadani, Kibaha/Mziingzima, Mohoro, Kilwa, Lindi City and Mtwara to the highway. The are numbered from the north, BM 11, BM 12, BM 13, BM 14, BM 15, and BM 16 respectively.
- Fences border this higway for its whole length, but they do not really give much protection from animals like gazelles. Tunnels under the road at intervals facilitate the movement of the herds.
- There are no limited access highways on the islands.
- The Sultanate inherited a narrow gauge rail system from CEA. Originally steam locomotives were used, but the conversion to electric trains, still narrow gauge, was completed in 1974. These trains connect the major cities and towns of the Swahili Provinces.
- After the completion of the Interprovincial Highway, a higher-speed rail system, the Royal High-Speed Railway System (Kifalme Kasi Mfomo wa Reli - KKMR), was constructed which parallels the highway. The trains on this system, while on the major north-south line, travel at 120 mph. This line is approximately 450 miles long.
- Spur lines link this high-speed railway to the cities mentioned above. The trains on these spur lines travel no faster than 60 mph. There is a station at each of the junctions of these spur lines and the high-speed line at which passengers may change trains.
- There is electric tram service in Zanzibar. Articulated trams of two cars make a circuit around the islands.
- There are no vehicle-carrying boats in the Sultanate.
- High-speed bancas carry passengers between the port cities of Tanga City, Mzizima, Lindi City, Mtwara and Palma.
- High-speed bancas carry passengers between the northern islands (Mafia, Unguja and Pemba) and between these islands and the coastal ports.
- There is a daily banca to and from Komori. Each morning a banca departs from Mutsamutu on Nzwani, thence to Fomboni on Mwali, on to Moroni on Njazidja, and thence to Palma in the Swahili Province of Nangade. At the same time a banca departs from Palma for Komori. It is an all-day voyage. At Palma, passengers can make connections for the KKMR or catch other bancas for points north.
- Airship transportation is provided by the Royal Air Service (Kifalme Huduma ya Ndege - KHN). Air travel is not used as much as the other forms of transportation because of the cost.
- Therefore, airship flights connect the major cities only twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays, that is, after and before the weekend.
- Similar to the banca trip from Komori, in the morning an airship leaves Tanga City and flies south to the capitals of each of the four Swahili Provinces. At the same time an airship leaves Palma and flies north. The flight time is not long and there is a return trip each evening.
- A flight leaves Tanga City on the same schedule for Zanzibar, and a flight leaves Palma for Moroni.
- There is airship service on Tuesdays from Mzizima north to Addis Ababa and thence on to Cairo and south to Antananrivo and thence on to Johannesburg.
- The Royal Air Service of Tanganyika has two flights a week to Mzizimi and Dodoma.