Zanzibar

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The Sultanate of Zanzibar and the Swahili Provinces
Usultani wa Zanzibar na Mikoa Kiswahili
? ?
state flag coat of arms
?
map of the Sultanate
Motto Uhuru na Umoja
Freedom and Unity
National Anthem
Towns
Capital Zanzibar
6°07'60"S
39°18'60"E
Provincial capitals Tanga City, Mzizima, Lindi City, Mtwara City, Wete, Klindoni, Moroni
Government constitutional monarchy
Head of State and Government Her Majesty Munira Abdunnabi binti wa Ikeno Al Akida
Demonym Zanzibari
Independence 1/1/1949.
Area 129,427 km² (49,579 mi²)
Population ~18,543,000
Ethnicities - Citizens Swahili 73%
Chinese 27%
Languages
Official Kiswahili
Other Mandarin
Religions
Official Islam
Others Buddhism
Taoism
Currency 1 Yuan (Y) = 20 jao (j) = 240 fen (f)
ISO Code ZAN
Time zone UTC +3
Telephone Code 567
Registration
Aviation ZAN nn
Marine ZAN nn
Amateur radio ZAN nn
Radio prefix ZAN
Organizations League of Nations
East Africa Treaty Organization
Sports
Official
Other


Contents

History

Timeline

The Founding Meeting

  • During the week of November 15, 1948, the eight Swahili emirs, feeling that it would be in their best interests to form a united front, met to discuss the future of their emirates in preparation for the independence to be granted them in the following year. After three days of discussion, the following propositions were deemed acceptable by the eight emirs.
  • 1. The seven emirs will transfer the sovereignty of their emirates to a federal government to be formed with the Emir of Zanzibar as the head of state and the head of government of a unitary state.
  • 2. The seven emirs will become governors (gavana) of the seven provinces which were originally their emirates. They have these responsibilities:
    • a. to represent, not only the regional, but also the federal government in their provinces.
    • b. to lead governmental services in their particular provinces, based upon the policies that have been made together with the Provincial Parliament.
    • c. to be responsible for law and order, security and emergency action.
    • d. to guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of municipal and provincial governments.
  • 3. They will receive a salary as civil servants.
  • 4. The will retain the title "emir" (mkuu) and will use the style "highness" (ukuu).
  • 5. They will retain the custom of dynastic succession that is proper to their particular houses.
  • 6. In default of a lawful heir, the title of emir will pass to the sultan and the administration of the province to the federal government.


Government

Zanzibar, Constitution of

List of Emirs Since Independence

Law of Succession

Administrative Divisions

  • Zanzibar is a unitary state divided into eight provinces (mkoa).
Province
(postal code)
mkoa
Capital Area Population
(2012)
District
wilaya
Demonym Notes
Pemba (P) Wete 988 km²
381 mi²
~410,000 Wete (Wete) (PW)
Chake-Chake (Chake-Chake) (PC)
Pemban Aerodrome at Chake-Chake.
Unguja (U) Zanzibar 2,461 km²
950 mi²
~1.300,000 Mkokotoni (Mkokotoni) (UM)
Zanzibar (Zanzibar) (UZ)
Zanzibari Aerodrome at Zanzibar.
Mafia (M) Kilindoni 435 km²
168 mi²
~47,000 Mafian Aerodrome at Kilindoni.
Komori (K) Moroni 2,408 km²
929 mi²
~1,000,000 Ngazidja (Moroni) (KN)
Mwali (Fomboni) (KM)
Nzwani (Mutsamudu) (KZ)
Comorian Aerodromes at Moroni and Mamudzu.
Tanga (T) Tanga City 8,892 km²
3,433 mi²
~686,000 Muheza (Tanga City) (TM)
Pangani (Pangani City) (TP)
Tangan Aerodrom at Tanga City.
Pwani (W) Mzizima 12,243 km²
4,718 mi²
~14,000,000 Bagamoyo (Bagamoyo City) (WB)
Kibaha (Mzizima) (WK)
Mkuranga (Mkuranga City) (WM)
Rufiji (Monoro) (WR)
Pwanian Aerodrome at Mzizima.
Lindi (L) Lindi City ~66,000 km²
~25,000 mi²
~290,000 Kilwa (Kinyonga) (LK)
Lindi (Lindi) (LL)
Lindan Aerodrome at Lindi City.
Nangade (N) Palma 36,000 km²
14,000 mi²
~810,000 Nangade (Nangade) (NN)
Palma (Palma) (NP)
Nangadi Aerodrome at Palma.

Thus, the total area of the sultanate is 129,427 km² (49,579 mi²), slightly smaller than *here's* Nicaragua and slightly larger than *here's* Malawi; slightly larger than the American state of Mississippi.


Geography

Borders

Zanzibar is bordered:

  • on the north by Kenya
    • the border extends from a point midstream at the mouth of the Umba River, east along parallel 4°40'50" to the 46th meridian; and west midstream along the course of the Umba River to its headwaters, thence along parallel ? to the Pangani River; thence midstream along the Pangani River and its tributary the Kikuletwa River to the 37th meridian.
  • on the east by the Indian Ocean
  • on the south by Mozambique
    • the border extends from a point midstream at the mouth of the Ruvuma River, west midstream along the course of the Ruvuma River to the 37th meridian.
  • on the west by Tanganyika; the border being the 37th meridian.

Culture

Religion, Islam

Islamic Holy Days

  • The names of the Islamic months have been adapted to KiSwahili phonology.
  • Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, the months advance 11 days each year. When an Islamic legal holiday falls on a Buddhist or civil legal holiday, the latter are transferred to the following Sunday.
Name Date Notes
Mawlid 17 Rabalawal The observance of the birthday of Muhammad. A legal holiday.
Sikukuu ya Mfunguo Mosi 1 Shawal Marks the end of [[Wikipedia:Ramadan|Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. A legal holiday.
Tamasha ya Sadaka 10-13 Dulhija Honors the willingness of Ibrahim (Abraham) to sacrifice his son as an act of submission to God's command. Only the 13 is a legal holiday.
Islamic New Year 1 Muharam

Religion, Buddhism

  • The Buddhism of the Sultanate is an esoteric mixture of Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism.
  • Common practices include:
    • the burning of incense while praying
    • paying respect to ancestors on the Qingming festival
    • belief in the existence of ghosts and hell
    • reincarnation
    • performance of religious rites to bring peace to the dead
    • vegetarianism and compassion towards all living beings. The Zanzibari Buddhists, in order to preserve their traditions, have become very conservative in their religious practices so that, those who own restaurants, only serve vegetarian food.
  • Buddhists do not live in the country, but only in the cities.
  • There are one or more Buddhist temples in all the major cities.

Buddhist Festivals

Name Date Notes
Lantern Festival Sunday after the new moon after January 21 Marks the final day of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations. Moved from the traditional date. A legal holiday.
Parinirvana Day Saturday after February 15 It celebrates the day when the Buddha is said to have achieved Parinirvana, or complete Nirvana, upon the death of his physical body. Moved to the Saturday after the traditional date.
Qingming
Tomb-sweeping day
April 4 or 5 15th day after the vernal equinox. On this day Buddhists visit the burial sites of their ancestors to pray for them. They clean the sites and offer food, tea, wine, chopsticks, joss paper, and/or libations to them.
The Buddha's birthday First Saturday of May Buddhists visit their temple, bring food to the monks, light incense, bathe the Buddha.
Bodhi Day December 21-28 Saturday after the winter solstice. Commemorates the day on which the Buddha experienced enlightenment.

Civil Holidays

  • The work week in Zanzibar is Sunday through Thursday, with Friday and Saturday as the weekend.
  • Fixed holidays which fall on Friday are transferred to Thursday. Those which fall on Saturday are transferred to Sunday.
Date Name Notes
1 Rabanathi Independence Day Independence from CEA on 1/1/1952.
3rd Sunday in Junadalula Father's day
11 Junadakira Constitution Day
3rd Sunday in Rajab Sultan's birthday
1st Sunday in Shaban Buddha's birthday Birth of the Buddha
6 Ramadan Coronation Day
1 Shawal Sikukuu ya Mfunguo Mosi Eid al-Fitr
3rd Sunday in Dulkada Mother's Day
Dulhija Tamasha ya Sadaka Eid al-Adha. Only the 10th is a legal holiday.
1 Muharam Labor Day
3rd Sunday in Safar Thanksgiving Day Based on the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival.
3rd Sunday in Rabalawal Kuzaliwa kwa Muhammad Birth of Mohammad

Styles and Titles

  • The Sovereign: Swahili personal name (ism), Muslim theophoric name, mwana/binti wa patronym (nasab), Al family name, Sultan(a) of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of His/Her Majesty (Enzi Yake).
    • The present sovereign of the Sultanate is Enzi Yake Munira Abdunnabi binti wa Ikeno Al Akida.
  • The female consort of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikha of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of Her Majesty (Enzi Yake).
  • The male consort of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikh of Unguja and the Swahili Provinces; with the style of His Majesty (Enzi Yake).
  • The Heir Apparent: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikh of Pemba; with the style of His Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
  • The Heir Presumptive: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
  • The Heiress Apparent: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name, Sheikha of Pemba; with the style of Her Royal Highness (Wake Kifalme Mtukufu).
  • The younger sons of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Highness (Ukuu Wake).
  • The daughters of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of Her Highness (Ukuu Wake).
  • The brothers of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of His Highness (Ukuu Wake).
  • The sisters of the Sovereign: Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name; with the style of Her Highness (Ukuu Wake).
  • The husbands of the sisters of the Sovereign: Sayyid1 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.
  • The wives of the brothers of the Sovereign: Sayyida Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.
  • Other male members of the Royal Family, being descendants of former Sultans in the male line: Habib2 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, mwana wa patronym, Al family name .
  • Other female members of the Royal Family, being descendants of former Sultans in the male line: Habiba3 Swahili personal name, Muslim theophoric name, binti wa patronym, Al family name.

1 In Zanzibar Sayyid no longer denotes a descendant of Mohammad; it has become an honorific title for certain in-laws of the royal family.

2 In Zanzibar Habib is no longer an honorific title to address a Muslim scholar; it has become an honorific title for more distant relatives in the royal family.

3 Habib is an Arabic male name, but it has been given a feminine suffix in KiSwahili.

Infrastructure

Roads

  • Traffic moves to the left.
  • Since its independence in 1949 Zanzibar has made steady progress in building roads in the cities and link the major cities of the Sultanate. In 1973 the Interprovincial Highway, a limited access highway, was completed linking Tanga City in the north to Palma in the south. It is numbered Interprovincial Highway 1 (BM-1, Barabara za Mkoa). Spur routes connect Sadani, Kibaha/Mziingzima, Mohoro, Kilwa, Lindi City and Mtwara to the highway. The are numbered from the north, BM 11, BM 12, BM 13, BM 14, BM 15, and BM 16 respectively.
  • Fences border this higway for its whole length, but they do not really give much protection from animals like gazelles. Tunnels under the road at intervals facilitate the movement of the herds.
  • There are no limited access highways on the islands.

Railroads

  • The Sultanate inherited a narrow gauge rail system from CEA. Originally steam locomotives were used, but the conversion to electric trains, still narrow gauge, was completed in 1974. These trains connect the major cities and towns of the Swahili Provinces.
  • After the completion of the Interprovincial Highway, a higher-speed rail system, the Royal High-Speed Railway System (Kifalme Kasi Mfomo wa Reli - KKMR), was constructed which parallels the highway. The trains on this system, while on the major north-south line, travel at 120 mph. This line is approximately 450 miles long.
  • Spur lines link this high-speed railway to the cities mentioned above. The trains on these spur lines travel no faster than 60 mph. There is a station at each of the junctions of these spur lines and the high-speed line at which passengers may change trains.
  • There is electric tram service in Zanzibar. Articulated trams of two cars make a circuit around the islands.

Boat travel

  • There are no vehicle-carrying boats in the Sultanate.
  • High-speed bancas carry passengers between the port cities of Tanga City, Mzizima, Lindi City, Mtwara and Palma.
  • High-speed bancas carry passengers between the northern islands (Mafia, Unguja and Pemba) and between these islands and the coastal ports.
  • There is a daily banca to and from Komori. Each morning a banca departs from Mutsamutu on Nzwani, thence to Fomboni on Mwali, on to Moroni on Njazidja, and thence to Palma in the Swahili Province of Nangade. At the same time a banca departs from Palma for Komori. It is an all-day voyage. At Palma, passengers can make connections for the KKMR or catch other bancas for points north.

Air travel

  • Airship transportation is provided by the Royal Air Service (Kifalme Huduma ya Ndege - KHN). Air travel is not used as much as the other forms of transportation because of the cost.
  • Therefore, airship flights connect the major cities only twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays, that is, after and before the weekend.
  • Similar to the banca trip from Komori, in the morning an airship leaves Tanga City and flies south to the capitals of each of the four Swahili Provinces. At the same time an airship leaves Palma and flies north. The flight time is not long and there is a return trip each evening.
  • A flight leaves Tanga City on the same schedule for Zanzibar, and a flight leaves Palma for Moroni.
  • There is airship service on Tuesdays from Mzizima north to Addis Ababa and thence on to Cairo and south to Antananrivo and thence on to Johannesburg.
  • The Royal Air Service of Tanganyika has two flights a week to Mzizimi and Dodoma.
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