Viticulture of Louisianne
Louisianne is one of the larger producers of wine in North America, and is noted for its own Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée recognized by the French government, one of the few in the world. The only other recognized appellation is that of the Napa Valley in Montrei. These appelations have been recognized by the French government mostly because many of the vintners are French, themselves, relocated to Louisianne for the chance of having their own vignoble, their own terroir.
The Terroir des Ozarques is fiercely protected by the Louisiannan Government, and borders on Ecotopism as they carefully review any roads, dams, rail lines or other influence in the region.
While the major viticultural area is the Ozarques and Loire, other regions are picking up their pace, and applications for a governmentally recognized terroir has been applied and accepted for the Alpes-Rocheuses, Terre Platte, and Côte d'Or. These are provisional and will be officially ratified by the Louisiannan Council and the BNAO in five years' time.
Terroirs of Louisianne
All Louisiannan wines are barrel-fermented by practice (and law until recently). The Terroir des Ozarques was producing two million gallons (7 571 000 litres) of wine by the 1880's, and in 2005 produced five million gallons (18 930 000 litres), half of which was exported.
Because of the official recognition of Louisiannan "terroirs", a strong affiliation and cooperation has developed between the Institut National des Appellations d'Origine of France and the Bureau National des Appellations d'Origine (BNAO) of Louisianne.
Terroir des Ozarques
The Terroir des Ozarques is attributed in large part to the use of the Norton variety of grapes, which are native to North America, but do not keep the flavor of the grape and can be used to produce a good table wine. Other varieties have been imported from Europe, and it was resistant Louisiannan rootstocks which saved Europe's wine industry when the Phylloxera epidemic struck in the mid-to-late 1800's.
Terroir des Alpes-Rocheuses
Focus has been given to Chasselas, Merlot varietals, as well as the rare Bondola and Chiavennasca varietals that were smuggled out of Helvetia.
Terroir de Terre Platte
Largely planted in Norton varietal, Terre Platte vintners have also begun experimenting with other varietals in recent years, largest being the Gamay varietal.
Terroir de Côte d'Or
Wines from this region include the melon frais, made from melon bourguignonne vines saved from destruction by expats who first settled in Canada and then migrated south.
Mauzac, Aligoté, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc are being used to create Gallois Frizzant, a local sparkling wine. It is sometimes referred to as champagne louisiannais, but this is frowned upon in the international wine communities, and all vintners of gallois frizzant strictly adhere to naming conventions.
Louisiannan bottles have from 1960 (when the industry was standardized) until recently been sold in 750 mL bottles, but are now sold domestically in these measures, but internationally in more conventional SI units. Louisiannan bottles are notable for their blue color, due to cobalt in the glass mixture, which began originally at the La Colline Rocheuse vineyard in the late 1800's and have come to signify Louisiannan wines the world over. Louisiannan bottles are similar to the wines of the Burgundy region of France.
While all bottles are blue, there is variation in color, a slight blue-tinged bottle for premium white wines, a medium blue for rosé and regular whites, and a very dark blue for all reds. Premium reds come in bottles that are almost completely opaque.