United Arab Emirates
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(All maps remain in the air...QSS is suspended for much of the Middle East as far as I, DH, know)
The United Arab Emirates was formed from the group of tribally organized Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman.
This area was converted to Islam in the 7th century; for centuries it was embroiled in dynastic disputes. It became known as the Pirate Coast as raiders based there harassed foreign shipping, although both European and Arab navies patrolled the area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early Kemrese expeditions to expand trade in the East met and negotiated for nearly a year to achieve peace. The next year, a general peace treaty was signed to which all the principal shaikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the Federated Kingdoms, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the Federated Kingdom, and disputes among shaikhs were referred to the British for settlement.
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the Federated Kingdoms and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the F.K. with other Gulf principalities. The shaikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the Federated Kingdoms and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the Federated Kingdoms without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help out in case of land attack.
In 1955, the Federated Kingdoms sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis and other territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute; however, the agreement has yet to be ratified by the UAE Government and is not recognized by the Saudi Government. The border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, but the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.
In 1968, the F.K. announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Shaikhdoms that had been under British protection. The nine formed a union of Arab Emirates which became fully independent on December 1, 1971. On December 2, 1971, six formed the the United Arab Emirates. The seventh, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972, and Qatar and Bahrain ratified the Union, joining in mid and late 1972, respectively.