Timelines of the MR

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Historical Timeline

  • 963 - The first monastery on Mt. Athos is founded by St. Athanasius.
  • 972 - The first charter of the monastic community, the Tragos (goat, so called because it was written on goatskin), is signed by the Emperor John I Tsimiskes and the monks of Mount Athos, officially establishing the coenobitic system alongside the hermitages. This tragos is the oldest chrysobull extant to bear an imperial signature.
  • 975 - The Monastery of St. George is founded by St. Xenophon.
  • 979 - The Monastery of the Annunciation is founded by three monks, Athanasios, Nicholas, and Antonius from Adrianople, pupils of St. Athanasios. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary and thus gives the monastery its name.
  • 980 - The monastery of St. George the Painter is founded by Moses, Aaron and John, three monks from Ohrid. The monastery takes its name from an early monk, an artist. From its foundation it has been inhabited by Bulgarian monks. This monastery also accepts Orthdox men from Oltenia, Muntenia, and Moldova.
  • 982 - The Monastery of the Dormition is founded by St. John from Iberia (Georgia). Although the population has dwindled to 32 monks, the monastery is still populated by Georgian monks.
  • 990 - The Monastery of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste is founded by Blessed Paul, reputedly son of Michael I Rangabe. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste and thus gives the monastery its name. The port of Dafni lies in its territory.
  • 993 - The monastery of the Holy Archangels is founded by Bl. Euthymius and dedicated to the Archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael.
  • 995 - The Monastery of the Annunciation is founded by Bl. Philotheus.
  • 998 - The Monastery of the Presentation of Jesus is founded on the site of the hermitage of Bl. Paul, who had founded the Monastery of the Forty Martyrs.
  • 1000 - Upon the death of St. Athanasios, his monastery is renamed St. Athanasios.
  • 1002 - Upon the death of St. John, his monastery is renamed St. John the Iberian
  • 1014 - The Monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul is founded by a monk named Karakalas. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul and thus gives the monastery its name. The monastery is soon deserted.
  • 1016 - The Esphigmenou Monastery is founded by an unknown monk.
  • 1022 - The Monastery of St. Nicholas, the smallest of the twenty monasteries, is founded by Nicetas, an officer of Emperor John I.
  • 1031 - On the 600th anniversary of the Council of Ephesus, the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, is named the patron and protector of the Holy Mountain.
  • 1045 - Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus signs the second Typikon, in which Mt. Athos is officially termed the Holy Mountain.
  • 1058 - Monks from Kiev establish the Monastery of the All-Holy Theotokos.
  • 1066 - The monk Kastamonites founds the Monastery of St. Stephen the Protomartyr.
  • 1095 - On the centenary of the founding of the monastery the name of Annunciation monastery is changed to St. Philotheus to honor the holy founder.
  • 1142 The Kievan monks move their community to the deserted Thessalonikeos Monastery.
  • 1169 - The Monastery of the Holy Cross is founded by an unknown person. There is a later re-foundation by Koutloumous, a Seljuk convert in the 14th century. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the the Holy Cross and thus gives the monastery its name.
  • 1169 - The Thessalonikeos Monastery is recognized as a monastery independent of Kiev.
  • 1183 - The Monastery of St. Nicholas is deserted because of pirate raids.
  • 1194 - Cambrian monks land on the shore of the Holy Mountain and are invited to take over the deserted Monastery of St. Nicholas.
  • 1198 - The monastery of Chilandar is founded by St. Sava for Serbian monks. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the Presentation of Mary and thus gives the monastery its name. This monastery accepts Orthodox men from Bohemia, Slevania, Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, Sanjak, Albania, and Xliponia.
  • 1253 - St. Sava is canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Serbian monks of Chilandar monastery change its name to honor their founder.
  • 1257 - The Monastery of New Bethlehem is founded, so named by its founder, Bl. Simon the Myrrhobletes.
  • 1292 - The Monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul is restored with the help of Emperor Andronicus II and Patriarch Athanasius I.
  • 1307 - The fifteen remaining monks of the Monastery of St. Stephen are transferred to the Monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul. Monks of the Catholic Maronite Rite, fleeing the persecution of Mamelukes are invited to occupy the Monastery of St. Stephen, which they rename the Monastery of St. Maroun.
  • 1307-9 - The monasteries on the coasts are sacked by Frankish and Catalan pirates, leaving only 35 of the original 300 occupied. They leave the Monastery of St. Maroun untouched.
  • 1312 - Emperor Andronicus II and the Patriarch Nephon I legislate that the election of the Protos must be approved by the Patriarch.
  • 1350 - The Monastery of the Presentation of Jesus is deserted.
  • 1358 - The Monastery of the Transfiguration is founded by the brothers Alexy Stratopedarch and John Primikerij, officials of the Byzantine court. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the Transfiguration of Jesus and thus gives the monastery its name.
  • 1379 - The Monastery of St. John the Baptist is founded by Blessed Dionysios. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to St. John the Baptist and thus gives the monastery its name.
  • 1383 - The Ottoman Turks seize Mount Athos and the first period of Ottoman rule begins.
  • 1388 - The Monastery of the Presentation of Jesus is restored by the Serbian monks Gerasimus Radona and Antonios Pegases.
  • 1394 - The Monastery of the Theophany is founded by St. Gregory.
  • 1403 - After the Turks are defeated at the Battle of Angora (1402), Mount Athos is restored to Byzantine sovereignty.
  • 1406 - Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus issues the third Typikon of Mount Athos.
  • 1424 - A delegation of monks visits Sultan Murad II in Adrianople. The second period of Ottoman rule begins.
  • 1440 - Because of pirate raids, the Monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul is again deserted.
  • 1533 - The abandoned Stavronikita Monastery is sold to Gregorious Giremeriatis, a Thesprotian abbot.
  • 1538 - The abbot Gregorios settles at the Stavronikita Monastery, dying in 1540.
  • 1544 - With the help of Prince John Peter of Wallachia (who later became a monk in the monastery) and the permission of Sultan Suleiman, the Monastery of Sts. Peter and Paul is restored and given the exclusive right to harvest chestnuts on the Holy Mountain.
  • 1576 – The few remaining monks of St. Paul are transferred to St. Anastasios and the monastery is turned over to monks of the Armenian Orthodox Church, the first instance of a Greek monastery being turned over to non-Greek monks. The katholikon of the monastery is dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste and thus gives the monastery its new name. This monastery also accepts Orthodox men from Azerbaijan.
  • 1593 - The authority of the Protos as the supreme administrative and spiritual leader of the monasteries is ended. The Megali Synaxis (Great Council) at Karyes is established as the supreme authority in charge of all affairs concerning the monastic community.
  • 1601 - The katholikon of the Monastery of New Bethlehem is built and dedicated to the Nativity of Jesus and thus gives the monastery its new name.
  • 1678 - The Monastery of the Nativity is deserted because of heavy Turkish taxation.
  • 1783 - The third Typikon of the Patriarch Gabriel IV is issued.
  • 1794 - Ioasaph of Mytilene arrives and begins the restoration of the Monastery of the Nativity.
  • 1800-19 - The Russian monks build a new monastery closer to the shore, now the largest on the Holy Mountain.
  • 1808 - A new katholikon is built for the Esphigmenou Monastery as part of some general renovation. It is dedicated to the Ascension of Jesus, which gives the monastery its present name.
  • 1812-21 - The Russians build a new katholikon dedicated to St. Panteleimon, which gives the monastery its current name. This monastery accepts also Orthodox men from Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, and Crimea.
  • 1821-1830 - The Monastery of the Forty Martyrs is occupied by Turkish troops.
  • 1870 - On October 3-5, In an armed attack by the monks on Turkish soldiers, the monasteries gain their independence as the Serene Monastic Republic of the Holy Mountain.
  • 1871 - On July 7, the Holy Synod publishes the Fourth Typikon which establishes the order of precedence of the twenty monasteries that had survived to this time.
  • 1878 - On July 5, the Holy Synod declares unilaterally its independence of the Ecumenical Patriarch. At the same time the Holy Synod adopts the Gregorian calendar.
  • 1878 - On October 11, in the Treaty of Karyes, the Ottoman Empire agrees to the independence of the Monastic Republic.
  • 1885 - At the request of the Abbot of St. Maroun Monastery, 30 Maronite Catholic and 12 Greek Orthodox refugee families from Lebanon are permitted to settle on the eastern shore near the Xerxes Canal. The town of Aktí is founded and the silk industry is established.
  • 1888 - On July 5, the Holy Synod approves and promulgates the Constitution of the Monastic Republic.
  • 1889 - On September 14, the Ecumenical Patriarch accedes to the independence of the Monastic Republic from his jurisdiction and consecrates the fourth archimandrite a bishop, thus establishing a "patriarchal" succession on the Holy Mountain.
  • 1891 - The katholikon of the Monastery of the Nativity is destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present form.
  • 1894 - The Monastery of the Nativity is abandoned.
  • 1908 - Brother Alexander of Annunciation presents to the Holy Synod his Athonite grammar and spelling reform. It is approved and mandated to be used and taught in the Lowland and the Isles.
  • 1922 - 38 Greek refugee families from Caesarea (Kayseri) in Turkey are permitted to settle on the western shore. The town of Prosferion is founded and the hand-woven carpet industry is established.
  • 1923 - 23 Greek refugee families from the island of Pasalimani, in the Sea of Marmara are permitted to settle on Amoulián Island. The town of Amoulián is founded and the fishing industry is established. They also cover the interior of the island with citrus groves.
  • 1926-28 – The monks who farmed the Lowland gradually return to their monasteries as the citizens take over the farming of the land.
  • 1932 - On September 26, at 7:20 p.m., an earthquake with a 7.0 magnitude destroys the Greek town of Ierissos and surrounding villages, including Aktí. 10,000 people are left homeless, including the 505 residents of Aktí; and 491 people die, 12 of them in Aktí. There are three aftershocks of lesser magnitude during the following three days. None of the monasteries is damaged.
  • 1933 - On May 11, an earthquake with a 6.3 magnitude struck the area again, an aftershock of the September 26, 1932, earthquake.*1939 – On January 4, the first issue of “The Athonite Beacon” (Тο Φάρος Αθωνιτός [to pháros athōnitós]) is published.
  • 1947 - On August 20, the Lowland and the Isles are connected to the power grid of the Hellenic Kingdom.
  • 1950-54 – Three lighthouses are constructed, on Cape Arapis, Cape Pinnes and Cape Akrothos.
  • 1952 – A telephone system is established in the MR using underground cables, with a cable laid from Prosforion to Amoulián. By the end of 1953, every residence and business in the Monastic Republic, including the monasteries, has a telephone.
  • 1953 – Father Serafim of St. Athanasius Monastery composes the National Anthem, Upon This Land, which is approved by the Holy Synod.
  • 1954 - The Monastic Republic is invited to join the Commission of Very Small States and accepts the invitation.
  • 1957-59 – Medical clinics are constructed in each of the demes.
  • 1958-59 – The streets of the demes are paved with concrete and the power lines are placed underground.
  • 1958-60 - A paved road is constructed between Aktí and Prosforion, the Interdeme Highway.
  • 1959 - The International License Plate Code "AO" is adopted.
  • 1970 - The monasteries are required to install solar panels and/or wind turbines. Wind turbines are installed on the northwest end of the Holy Mountain to supplement power for the Lowland. They are installed on Amoulián to supplement power for the Isles. Solar panels are erected for the lighthouses.
  • 1972 – On August 15, the new hospital in Prosforion is dedicated and named Holy Spirit.
  • 1973 - The Interdeme Highway is widened to accomodate trolley buses.
  • 1975 – The Aoun Brewery is founded by John Aoun.
  • 1975-79 - The Xerxes Canal is widened and deepened so as to make it navigable. The bridge over the canal is replaced with a tunnel.
  • 1978 - On June 20 an earthquake with a 6.0 magnitude struck the Greek city of Thessaloniki. There was only minimal damage in the Monastic Republic, although six people were injured.
  • 1980 - The shore road is paved northward to the prison.
  • 1984 – Faiqa Maalouf founds the Mt. Athos Dance Troupe with a grant from ?.
  • 1990 – The Monastic Republic becomes a signatory nation to the Unified Currency Convention with the mina, the drachma, and the lepton as the denominations.
  • 1994 - The Assyrian Church is invited to send monks to occupy the abandoned Monastery of the Nativity, which they rename the Monastery of St. Thomas.
  • 1995 – Brothers from the Monastery of St. Thomas assume the care of the Aktí Clinic, which is renamed Christ Healer.

Timeline of Fires

  • 1307 - Panteleimon
  • 1393 - Pantocrator
  • 1491 - Esphigmenou
  • 1497 - Koutloumousiou
  • 1534 – Dionysiou
  • 1607 - Stavroniketa
  • 1570 – Simonopetra
  • 1717 - Konstamonitou
  • 1722 - Chilandari
  • 1740 – Iveron
  • 1741 - Stavroniketa
  • 1757 - Koutloumousia
  • 1762 - Grigoriou
  • 1773 - Pantocrator
  • 1845 – Iveron
  • 1857 – Koutloumousiou
  • 1864 - Stavroniketa
  • 1865 – Iveron
  • 1870 – Koutloumousiou
  • 1871 - Philotheou
  • 1875 – Karakalou
  • 1879 – Stavroniketa
  • 1891 – Chilandari
  • 1902 – Aghiou Pavlou
  • 1948 – Pantocrator
  • 1950 – Xeropotamou
  • 1968 - Panteleimon
  • 1973 – Xeropotamou
  • 1974 – Zographou

Rotation Schedule for the Archimandrites

  1. 1870 - Demetrius of St. Athanasios
  2. 1875 - Paul of Annunciation
  3. 1880 - John I of St. John the Baptist
  4. 1885 - Stephen of Holy Cross
  5. 1890 - Basil of Transfiguration (first bishop)
  6. 1895 - Andrew of Holy Archangels
  7. 1900 - Alexander of Sts. Peter and Paul (dies of pneumonia 1902)
  8. 1902 - John II of St. Philotheus
  9. 1907 - Manual of Presentation
  10. 1912 - Joseph of St. George
  11. 1917 - Gregory of Theophany
  12. 1922 - Isidore of Ascension
  13. 1927 - Matthew of St. Athanasios
  14. 1932 - Jeremias of Annunciation
  15. 1937 - Metrophanes of St. John the Baptist
  16. 1942 - Cosmas I of Holy Cross
  17. 1947 - Cosmas II of Transfiguration
  18. 1952 - Gabriel of Holy Archangels
  19. 1957 - Methodius of Sts. Peter and Paul (killed in a fall 1961)
  20. 1961 - Maximus of St. Philotheus
  21. 1966 - Theophanes of Presentation of Jesus
  22. 1971 - Simeon of St. George
  23. 1976 - George of St. Theophany
  24. 1981 - Zosimus of Ascension
  25. 1986 - Ephrem of St. Athanasios
  26. 1991 - Gregory of Annunciation
  27. 1996 - Basil of St. John the Baptist (resigns in 2000 due to illness)
  28. 2000 - Theodore of Holy Cross
  29. 2005 - Nicephorus of Transfiguration
  30. 2010 – Loukas of Holy Archangels
  31. 2015 – Ignatius of Sts. Peter and Paul
  • 2020 – St. Philotheus
  • 2025 - Presentation
  • 2030 – St. George
  • 2035 - Theophany
  • 2040 – Ascension

Public Law Chronology

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