The Spartakijada (Serbosanjaki; Spartakiada (Croatian), Spartakiada (Dalmatian), Спартакияда (Bulgarian), Spartakiade (English)) was an international sporting competition similar to the World Games first held in 1949, with the Summer Spartakiade held in Belgrade, Serbian SR, and the Winter Spartakiade in Kyustendil, Bulgarian SR. Spartakiade competitions were held every three years thereafter until 1988.
The first five Spartakiade competitions saw competitors from the constituent Soviet Republics of the CSDS and teams from the Soviet Danubian protectorates; Gold Coast did not compete in the 1949 games. From 1964 onwards, teams from a small number of nations friendly to the CSDS also took part.
The 1991 summer games had been awarded to Cairo, Egypt, and the winter games to Phieñiañ, Corea, but by then only two CSDS member states remained - Slovenia and Croatia. When Japanese authorities refused to grant the Croatian team visas (sharing the view with much of the rest of the world that Croatia was the main aggressor in the Danubian civil war), the government in Ousěk forbade the Slovenian team to depart. Nevertheless, the games were held due to the investments already made by both Egypt and Japan, but the list of competitors, for the first (and last) time, did not include any CSDS member states. Following the 1991 games the Spartakiade was abandoned.
Following a series of discussions amongst the respective sport ministries, an agreement was reached amongst the membership of the Community of Dalmatophone States to resurrect the Spartakiade starting in 2011, with the summer games to be held in Raguza, Dalmatia and the winter games to be held in Czieta da Nikola Tesla, New Dalmatia; Upper Nigervolta will send teams from each individual member state.
An open invitation was made to ask other nations to compete, especially subnational entities and non-independent peoples; until now, several have responded: Oltenia, Muntenia, Moldova, Albania and Canton, along with several returning non-Dalmatophone states. Further, there was a response from the North American League; in keeping with the spirit of the first incarnation of the games, there will not be a unified NAL team at the games - instead, two provinces have confirmed they will send teams: New Iceland and Carolina. Finally, it was also confirmed that Slovenian and Istrian teams will also be allowed to compete.
|Summer Spartakiade||Winter Spartakiade|
|Year||Host City||Country||Host City||Country|
|1949||Belgrade||Serbian SR||Kyustendil||Bulgarian SR|
|1952||Yaxiar||Dalmatian SR||Celje||Slovenian SR|
|1955||Lome||Togolese SR||Ferizovac||Sanjaki SR|
|1958||Řeka||Croatian SR||Zenica||Dalmatian SR|
|1961||Varna||Bulgarian SR||Zaječar||Serbian SR|
|1964||Užice||Serbian SR||Jesenice||Slovenian SR|
|1967||Běly Manastyr||Croatian SR||Petropavlovsk||Chukotka|
|1976||Ujvidek||Serbian SR||Maribor||Slovenian SR|
|1982||Nea Illenicia||Czieta da Saray||Dalmatian SR|
|1988||Ousěk||Croatian SR||Višegrad||Serbian SR|
|2011||Raguza||Dalmatia||Czieta da Nikola Tesla||New Dalmatia|
Sporting events held at Spartakiade games had a surprising stability. Throughout the history of the event, there was no change made to the schedule of summer events, while only one change was made to the winter schedule - the addition of men's and women's snowshoe races over three distances.
Distances of events were defined using CSDS standard measures.
All events had competitions for men and for women.
- Track events: 2 chain, 4 chain, 8 chain, 1 verst, 4 verst, 1 mile, 2 chain hurdles, 4 verst steeplechase, 3 mile walk, 4 x 2 chain relay, 4 x 4 chain relay, marathon
- Field events: distance jumping, distance kicking, distance shot throwing, javelin throw
- compound bow
- recurve bow
- pistol, standing target
- pistol, moving target
- rifle, standing target
- rifle, moving target
- freestyle: 1 chain, 2 chain, 4 chain, 8 chain, 1 verst, 4 x 2 chain relay
- breaststroke: 1 chain, 2 chain, 4 chain
- backstroke: 1 chain, 2 chain, 4 chain
- Alpine skiing:
- 1 mile, 2 mile, 3 x 2 mile relay
- Cross-country skiing:
- 1 mile, 3 miles, 6 miles, 4 x 2 mile relay
- Snowshoeing (introduced 1961)
- 8 chain, 1 verst, 4 verst
- Speed skating:
- 2 chain, 8 chain, 1 verst, 1 mile, 4 x 2 chain, 4 x 8 chain
Platinum, Gold and Silver medals were awarded to the winner, second and third placed finishers respectively in each competition. For the ranking tables, 3 points were given for each platinum, 2 for each gold and 1 for each silver.
Summer 1949, Belgrade, Serbian SR
|SDP Upper Volta||7||6||6||39|
Winter 1949, Kyustendil, Bulgarian SR
Summer 1952, Yaxiar, Dalmatian SR
|SDP Upper Volta||7||8||5||42|
Winter 1952, Celje, Slovenian SR
Summer 1955, Lome, Togolese SR
Winter 1955, Ferizovac, Sanjaki SR
Summer 1958, Řeka, Croatian SR
Winter 1958, Zenica, Dalmatian SR
Summer 1961, Varna, Bulgarian SR
Winter 1961, Zaječar, Serbian SR
A single Togolese athlete - a student at the university in Ljubljana named Radu Czomogo - competed for his nation in the three alpine skiing events.
Summer 1964, Užice, Serbian SR
The 6th Spartakiade Cycle - 1964 - was the first in which teams from non-CSDS member states or former protectorates took part in the games. Since the summer games take place later in the year, the distinction of "first foreign medallist" went to a Bavarian athlete at the winter games. 1964 was also the first time that no CSDS protectorates took part, as the last of them, Kongo, achieved independence in 1963.
The first "foreign" - that is, non-CSDS or protectorate - nations to compete at a Summer Spartakiade were Albania, Bavaria, Libya, Syria and Egypt. The first athlete from one of these to win a medal was Yasir al-Jaffer from Syria, winning a gold medal in men's distance kicking.
Winter 1964, Jesenice, Slovenian SR
The Jesenice Winter Spartakiade of 1964 marked the first time that teams arrived from nations not members of the CSDS or its protectorates, with Bavaria and Albania as the first "foreign" nations to compete. Bavarian speed skater Ingetraut Schauerhammer became the first "foreign" medalist, when she won the platinum medal in the women's 2-chain sprint.
Togolese skier Radu Czomogo took part in the 1964 games as well, once more being the only African competitor at the Winter Spartakiade.
Summer 1967, Běly Manastyr, Croatian SR
Winter 1967, Petropavlovsk, Chukotka
Chukotka, Alyaska and Nea Illenicia also took part in the winter games of 1967, with Chukotka having been selected as the host nation following their application in 1964.
Radu Czomogo of Togo became the first African to medal in the Winter Spartakiade, taking a silver medal in the men's slalom. At the end of the games, he announced his retirement from competitive skiing.
Summer 1970, Tirana, Albania
1970 saw the addition three new competitors in the Summer Spartakiade - Oregon, Xliponia and Futainan. It was also the first time that a former CSDS protectorate topped the final table. However, Libya did not participate, following a change in government there.
Winter 1970, Skopie, Bulgarian SR
The Winter Spartakiade of 1970 added two new competing nations, Oregon and Xliponia.
Summer 1973, Bamako, Mali
The 1973 Spartakiade marked the last time that Syria and Egypt took part in the competitions for over a decade due to political difficulties between the two and the CSDS.
Winter 1973, Vancouver, Oregon
Summer 1976, Újvidék, Serbian SR
Due to political changes in the country and a resulting change of the country's name, Togo took part under the new name of People's Republic of Benin.
A notable achievement was made by Croatia's Ana Stáničiť, who swept the women's sharpshooting competition, winning the platinum medal in each event, and scoring perfect scores on both standing and moving targets with rifle. Thus, Stáničiť singlehandedly won almost half of Croatia's total of nine platinums.
Winter 1976, Maribor, Slovenian SR
Summer 1979, Quanzhou, Futainan
1979 marked the only year that Hunan took part in the Spartakiade.
Winter 1979, Novo Arkhangelsk, Alyaska
Summer 1982, Nea Illenicia
The 1982 Summer Spartakiade saw the first time that a single nation won 10 or more medals of each category since the field of competitors was expanded beyond CSDS member states and protectorates, with Serbia winning 12 platinum, 13 gold and 10 silver medals.
Winter 1982, Czieta da Saray, Dalmatian SR
Summer 1985, Luanda, Kongo
The Summer Spartakiade of 1985 introduced Armorica, Samraj, Beihanguo, Hessen, Kurdistan and Nanhanguo as new participants, and the return of Egypt and Syria to the games. Further, following yet another namechange, Benin once again took part under the name Togo. Togo had the unusual distinction of fielding the first (and only) all-female team, due to the mobilisation of all the male athletes into the army to fight in the then-occurring war against the PDSRB secessionists.
Winter 1985, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria
The Winter Spartakiade of 1985 introduced Beihanguo, Hessen and Kurdistan as new participants.
Summer 1988, Ousěk, Croatian SR
The Summer Spartakiade of 1988 was the final "complete" games in which teams from CSDS member states took part, with the exception of Bulgaria, who had declared independence from the CSDS early in the year and refused to take part - much to the disappointment of the spectators, who had been looking forward to seeing whether Svetlana Yasenova could win a fourth straight platinum in the women's marathon. Yamato and Corea took part for the first time in a summer Spartakiade.
Winter 1988, Kalxiarma Likeska, Dalmatian SR
The final "complete" winter Spartakiade in which teams from CSDS member states (except Bulgaria) took part. Teams from Yamato and Corea competed for the first time.
Summer 1991, Cairo, Egypt
The last Spartakiade games to take place, the 1991 summer games saw no CSDS member states compete, and were held primarily because the host had invested too much in the games not to have them take place.
Winter 1991, Phieñiañ, Corea
The last winter Spartakiade games to take place saw no CSDS member states compete, and were held primarily because the host had invested too much in the games not to have them take place.
All-Time Medal Tables
The entries for the former CSDS protectorates include the medals won both as protectorates and after independence.