South Asian Nations

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The South Asian Nations Organisation (SAN) is an economic and trade organisation formed in 1986 amongst the nations of India. Its principal function is the promotion of economic growth and standardisation of infrastructure and agriculture, but it also could act as arbitration in disputes. It was founded due to competition between various Indian states (as well as those in Southeast China) over the SEZs. Today it helps its members are;

By the Weights, Measures, Currency and Calendar Reforms Treaty of 1999 (WMCCRT-99), all the SAN countries have adopted a uniform system of weights, measures and currency. This sytem is given below.



1 rattika = 2gr
5 rattikas = 1 masha = 10gr
1,000 mashas = 1 karsha = 20uc 6dr 40gr
30 karshas = 1 tola =52lb 1uc
5 tolas = 1 grena =260lb 5uc


1 angula = 1uc
5 angulas = 1 hasta =5uc
56 hastas = 1 danda =4ps 3p 4uc
1,000 dandas = 1 kosa =4mi
3 kosas = 1 yojana =12mi


1 pala = 1 second
60 palas = 1 ksana = 1 minute
60 ksanas = 1 hora = 1 hour
24 horas = 1 dina = 1 day


1Pai = variable
3 Pais = 1 Paisa
8 Paisas = 1 Dinar
4 Dinars = 1 Ana
16 Anas = 1 Rupaya

The Rupaya is not the common currency of the above countries, but WMCCRT-99 ensures that every SAN country divides the Rupaya into Anas, Dinars, Paisas and Pais as above.


The WMCCRT-99 has converted the existing lunar eras to solar eras. There are twelve months, Chaitra (March-April), Vaishakha (April-May), Jyeshtha (May-June), Ashadha (June-July), Shravana (July-August), Bhadrapada (August-September), Ashvina (September-Otober), Kartika (October-November), Agrahayana (November-December), Pausha (December-Janunary), Magha (January-February) and Phalguna (February-March). The first six months except Chaitra have 31 days each. The rest of the months and Chaitra have 30 days each. Every year divisible by 4, except those which end in 00, is a leap year. A year ending in 00 is a leap year if it is divisible by 400. In a leap year, Chaitra has 31 days.

The countries use the Sabhyata Era, which dates from 1500 BC. August 31, 2003, correspons with Bhadrapada 11, 4503.

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