Personal names in Turkestan

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In most of Turkestan, people do not use surnames. Tajiks have surnames, but the Turkic people, both sart and nomad, use patronymics instead.

Thus, for a person of Turkic origin, their full name will be their given name, followed by a patronymic of their father's name (and title if they have one) plus –ulı for a man or –qızı for a woman. After this comes any title that they personally have, eg Bey, Imam, Dastur, Avışqap (Bishop), Sardar (General) etc. If they have more than one title, the highest-ranking or most permanent is used.

Thus the current head of state of Turkestan is Sultan (his given name) Qasım-ulı (his patronymic) Ilxan (his title).

Formal introductions involve not only a person's full name and title, but will also detail their paternal-line grandfather and great-grandfather back at least 4 generations for a sart and 7 for a nomad. Even small children generally know at least their father's and grandfather's names; by the age of seven, they are expected to know at least seven generations' worth of ancestry. The names of your "seven grandfathers" are required on legal documentation as specification as to which of the 600 or so Enver Tımur-ulıs is meant.

In everyday usage, after you have been introduced formally you may call someone by their given name and title, or if you know them well and are of senior or equal rank, by their first name alone.

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