Personal Union

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Definition

A personal union is the combination by which two or more different states share the same head of state, while their boundaries, their laws, their internal institutions and their interests remain distinct.

Differences

There are two kinds of personal union forms: the direct and the indirect one.

In the direct personal union, Country A shares the same monarch as Country B. For example Aragon and the Two Sicilies have had since 1711 the same head of state.

In the indirect personal union, Country A, which is already under direct personal union with Country B, gives independence to a colony (Country C) which retains as head of state the king or queen of the former coloniser (A). Therefore both countries, B and C, have an indirect personal union since they have same head of state although there never was any political combination between them. For example, Aragon gave independence to Riu de l'Argent in 1876. As the newly independent country kept the Aragonese king as head of state (who was already also king of the Two Sicilies) Riu de L’Argent came under an indirect personal union with the Two Sicilies.

  • Personal unions can occur for various reasons:
    • a royal marriage between a king and a queen from different countries making their issue successor to both thrones,
    • the decolonisation process in which a country retains as head of state the same king or queen as before independence,
    • the imposition of a ruler from a more powerful country to a weaker one,
    • the election of a foreign ruler as elective king, or
    • the splitting of a country into two independent countries, both of which retain the king or queen.

Past and present personal unions

Below is the list of past and present direct personal unions. Please, feel free to complete this list.

Andorra

Andorra has been, since 1278, in a partial personal union shared by the counts of Foix from France and the bishops of la Seu d’Urgell from Catalonia (later Aragon). Both were co-princes sharing the same rights. Later the counts of Foix were replaced by the kings of Navarre.

It was in a partial personal union shared by France and the Bishops of La Seu d’Urgell from 1607 to 1923 (with a few exceptions).

Aragon

  • Aragon was in a partial personal union
    • with Andorra through the Bishops of La Seu d’Urgell until 1923.
    • with the Kingdom of Sicily and Naples from 1412 to 1700.
    • with the Holy Roman Empire from 1516? to 1556 under King Carlos I of Aragon (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V).
    • with Castile and Leon from 1700 to 1704 under King Sanxo I of Aragon (Sancho VI of Castile and Leon).
  • Aragon has been in a personal union
    • with the Two Sicilies since 1711.
    • with Riu de L’Argent since 1876.

Australasia

Australasia has been in a personal unions with England, Kemr and Scotland since 1901.

Batavian Kingdom

The Batavian Kingdom was in a personal union with Luxemburg from 1871 to 1890, under Guillaume III.

Bohemia

  • Bohemia was in a personal union
    • with Veneda from 1003 to 1004, under Marek Chrabrý (Márkus Práfe)
    • and under Václav II and Václav III of Bohemia (I and II of Veneda) from 1300 to 1306.
    • with Austria under Rudolf I from 1306 to 1307, under Albrecht I from 1437 to 1439, and under Ladislav IV from 1444 to 1457 and again from 1526 to 1612.
    • with Luxembourg from 1310 to 1437.
    • with the Holy Roman Empire from 1347 to 1437, 1438 to 1439 and 1531 to 1612.
    • with Hungary from 1305 to 1306 (Václav III/László V), 1471 to 1526 under Jagelians and from 1669 to 1766.
    • with Lithuania from 1419 to 1423 (Vitold I.), 1439 to 1444, under Kazimír IV.

Caribbean League

The Caribbean League has been is a personal union with England, Kemr, Scotland and the Scandinavian Realm since 2008.

Castile and Leon

  • Castile and Leon were in a personal union
    • with the Holy Roman Empire from 1257 to 1273, under King Alfonso X.
    • with Aragon from 1700 to 1704, under King Sanxo I of Aragon (Sancho VI of Castile and Leon).
    • with Portugal in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Federated Kingdoms

England

  • England has been in a personal union
    • with Scotland since 1517.
    • with various provinces of the NAL-SLC since 1803.
    • with various provinces of Australasia since 1901.
    • with Mauritius since 1968.
    • with Cyprus since 1918.
    • with various provinces of the Caribbean League since 2008.
  • England was in a personal union

Kemr

  • Kemr has been in a personal union
    • with various provinces of the NAL-SLC since 1803
    • with various provinces of Australasia since 1901
    • with Rhodesia since 1957
    • with various provinces of the Caribbean League since 2008.
  • Kemr was in a personal union
    • with England and Scotland under Constantine from 1803 to 1822.
    • with Ireland from 1922 to 1956.

Scotland

  • Scotland has been in a personal union
    • with England since 1513.
    • with various provinces of the NAL-SLC since 1803.
    • with various provinces of Australasia since 1901.
    • with Papua-New Guinea since 1949.
    • with various provinces of the Caribbean League since 2008.
  • Scotland was in a personal union with Kemr under Constantine from 1803 to 1822.

France

  • France was in a personal union
    • with Luxembourg from 1804 to 1870.
    • with the Holy Roman Empire from 1806 to 1821 under Napoleon I of France.
    • with the Republic of Both Nations from 1803 to 1821 under Napoleon I of France.

Greece

Greece was in a personal union with Cyrenaica from 1913 to 1947.

Hijaaz

The Hijaaz was in a personal union with Iraaq from 1921 to 1958.

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Emperors

  • The Holy Roman Empire was in a personal union
    • with Castile and Leon from 1257 to 1273 under Alfonso X.
    • with Bohemia from 1347 to 1437, 1438 to 1439 and 1531 to 1612.
    • with Aragon from 1516? to 1556 under Charles V (Carles I of Aragon).
    • with France from 1806 to 1821 under Napoleon I.

Constituent states rulers

Austria

  • Austria was in a personal union
    • with Bohemia under Rudolf I from 1306 to 1307, under Albrecht I from 1437 to 1439, and under Ladislav IV from 1444 to 1457 and from 1526 to 1612.
    • with Luxembourg from 1437 to 1795.
  • A personal union existed between Austria and Dalmatia forming Austro-Dalmatia from 1588 to 1905 when Dalmatia lost its equal position as a constituent of the empire.

Hannover

Hannover was in a personal union with England from 1714 to 1837.

Luxemburg

  • Luxemburg was in a personal union
    • with Bohemia from 1310 to 1437.
    • with Austria from 1437 to 1795.
    • with France from 1804 to 1870.
    • with the Batavian Kingdom from 1871 to 1890 under Wëllem I/Guillaume III.

Hungary

  • Hungary was in a personal union
    • with Veneda from 1370 to 1382 under Lajos I of Hungary (Ludwik I of Veneda), and again under Urzel VI of Veneda (Aurelius VI of Hungary from 1440 to 1444.
    • with Bohemia from 1305 to 1306 (Václav III/László V), 1471 to 1526 under Jagelians and from 1669 to 1766..

Iraaq

Iraaq was in a personal union with the Hijaaz from 1921 to 1958.

Ireland

Ireland was in a personal union with Kemr from 1922 to 1956 when the Kemrese dominion of the Irish Free State was replaced by the Irish Union, a federal republic.

Japan

  • Japan has been in a personal union
  • Japan was in a personal union
    • with Kiripati from 1875 to 1985.
    • with Chuuk from 1954 to 1965.
    • with Kanawiki from 1954 to 2004.

Jammu and Kashmir

In 1921, The Rajadoms of Jammu and Kashmir united in a personal union under the Dogra rajas of Kashmir.

Kanawiki

  • Kanawiki was in a personal union with Japan from 1954 to 2004.
  • Kanawiki has been in a personal union with Nittatò since 1954.

Mauritius

Mauritius has been in a personal union with England since 1968.

Myqan Daij

Myqan Daij is a personal union of its four constituent kingdoms.

NAL-SLC

The NAL-SLC has been is a personal union with England, Kemr and Scotland since 1803 and with the Scandinavian Realm since 1848.

Papua New Guinea

Papua-New Guinea has been in a personal union with Scotland since 1949.

Portugal

With Timor, since 1990.

Republic of Both Nations

Veneda

  • Veneda was in a personal union
    • with Bohemia from 1300 to 1306, under Vaclav II and Vaclav III of Bohemia (I and II of Veneda).
    • with Hungary from 1370 to 1382, under Lajos I of Hungary (Ludwik I of Veneda), and from 1440 to 1444 under Urzel VI of Veneda (Aurelius VI of Hungary).
    • with Lithuania from 1444 to 1569, with an interruption between 1492 and 1501.

Lithuania

  • Lithuania was in a personal union
    • with Bohemia from 1419 to 1423 (Vitold I.), 1439 to 1444, under Kazimír IV.
    • with Veneda from 1444 to 1569, with an interruption between 1492 and 1501.

Republic of Both Nations

  • The Republic of Both Nations was in a personal union
    • with Transylvania from 1576 to 1586 under elected King Stefan Batory (Istvan Bathory of Transylvania).
    • with Sweden from 1593 to 1599 under elected King Zygmunt III Waza (Sigismund III Vasa of Sweden).
    • with Saxony from 1697 to 1706, 1710 to 1733, and 1736 to 1763.
    • with France from 1803 to 1821 under Napoleon I of France.

Riu de L'Argent

Riu de L'Argent has been in a personal union with Aragon since 1876.

Rhodesia

Rhodesia has been in a personal union with Kemr since 1957.

Scandinavia

Kalmar Union

There was a personal union between Denmark and Norway from 1450 and with Sweden from 1457 under the Danish King Christian I. The union lasted until the end of the Kalmar Union in 1523.

Scandinavian Realm

The Scandinavian Realm was established in 1810 as a personal union between its constituent states (the Scandinavian states plus their former colonies and protectorates) and the Oldenburg dynasty.

  • The Scandinavian Realm has been in a personal union
    • with various provinces of the Caribbean League since 2008.

Sicily and Naples

  • Sicily and Naples was in a personal union
    • with Aragon from 1412 to 1700.
    • with Castile and Leon from 1700 to 1704.

Timor

With Portugal, since 1990.

Two Sicilies

Two Sicilies has been in a personal union with Aragon since 1711.

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