Hus

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Jan Hus (1369-1419) was among his duties as Universitas Pragensis Carolina rector, a theologist. He wrote opus De ecclesia, in which he stated his aims in church reform, based on previous works of other theologists like John Wycliff, Hieronymus Pragensis, Jean Petit and Johann von Falkenberg. He saw the success of his efforts on council in Konstanz, but he could not continue his work; he died of heart attack on September 14, 1419 in Prague.

Politically, his conclusions were summarised in Compactata, quatuor articuli pragensis:

  1. Free advocacy of the Divine Word by all officially approved persons.
  2. All deadly sins must be punished regardless of the estate of the sinner
  3. Communion should be given sub utraque specie
  4. Church should not rule in secular; (*here* in 1423, *there* 1414).

Sigismud of Luxembourg, King of Hungary and Roman King took opposite to *here* this as his politics. *Here* he only insisted to solve the problems, but he did not used this theses. He summoned, after Pisan Council, the council to Konstanz 5th November 1414 - 22nd april 1418, and he used military threads to let the council come to conclusion on unobjectionability of Hus' ideas. He made a deal with rebels in Bohemia, in exchange for Articuli he might become a king. Then, his armed men were mostly from Bohemia, under leadership of excellent strategist and tactician, Jan Zizka of Trocnov / Höns Šiška foncu Trocnau (*here* leader of rebelling hussites).

causa unionis - schizma; solved in 1417 electing Martin V. (Otto Colonna): Johannes XXII. of Pisa (Balthasar Cossa) was dethroned, Gregorius XII. of rome (Angellus Corrianus) abdicated 1415 and Benedictus XIII. of Avignon (Petrus de Luna) was also dethroned 1417.

causa reformis in capite et membris - Sigismund was succesfull in this too (oppo to *here*) Articuli were accepted by the Council (although not seriously taken and fulfilled later). Then, 1419 became Sigismund Bohemian king and also Roman Emperor 1420 (instead of 1433 as *here*).

causa fidei - heresy must be punished, but the limits changed. Fight with heresy should be done through disputatio. Council of the Church is infallible. This was the base for later rebellion of M. Luther, who strongly opposed the primas papal role and infallibility of the council.

Byzantine emperor John VIII. Palaiologos accepted in 1437 the proposal of pope Eugene IV. to unify the Church in an attempt to save Byzantium facing Ottoman aggression, as the Catholic church saw an opportunity to exploit this situation to get its hand over the Church in East. Despite the initial mutually open steps, it was already clear during the Council of Ferrata that the Church in East as whole would never consent to the Filioque and its consequences. After moving the Council to Florence to proceed negotiations, the reunion was concluded in 1439, but never fully supported, as only part of the eastern Church was open to unification under these circumstances. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 put a definite end to the agreement. The only church, which accept the proposal in full, based on the local reformist movement, was the Latin Church in Bohemia right after the agreement in 1439. As the result of Articuli, Church in Bohemia was decentralised, but united under pope. Church is now united through idea, not might, thus all the protestantism is more focused on ideological fight than political (no defenestrations in Prague, no hussite revolution, no 30-years war).

Hussites were just extreme purists by means of Articuli who gave birth to the Bohemian protestants later in XVI. and XVII. century. So, Moravian Brothers might exist, and might also do their job *there*, but not because they were expelled, only because of their zeal.

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