History of Tawantinsuyu

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First dynasty

  • Little is known of the rulers of the first dynasty of Sapa Inkas. Evidently, they were affiliated with the Hurin moiety and their rule did not extend beyond the Kingdom of Qusqu. Their origins are tied to the mythical establishment of Qusqu and are shrouded in later foundation myth. The dynasty was supposedly founded by Manqu Qhápaq.
Name Succeeds Reign Died Notes
1) Manqu Qhápaq founder c.1200-30 c.1230 c.1200 - The Inka tribe, led by Manqu Qhapaq, founds the city-state of Qusqu in the Qusqu Valley region
Believed to be the son of the sun, he marries his sister, Mama Uqllu, the daughter of the moon. From now on the king must marry his sister. Only from this marriage can the next king be named
2) Sinchi Ruq'a Inka
valorous generous Inka
father c.1230-60 c.1260 Of the Hurin dynasty; marries Mama Kura
3) Lluq'i Yupanki
the glorified left-hander
2nd son
c.1260-90 c.1290 Marries Mama Qawa; founds the public market; builds the Akllawasi, the "temple of the sun virgins"
4) Mayta Qhapaq father c.1290-1320 c.1320 Marries Mama Kuka
1134 – Conquers the regions of Arequipa and Moquegua
5) Qhapaq Yupanki Inka
splendid accountant Inka
2nd son
c.1320-50 c.1350; his older brother became high priest; marries Kusi Hilpay; killed by the Hanan moiety

Second Dynasty

Qhapaq Yupanki's heir apparent had been his son Quispe Yupanki, but, after Qhapaq Yupanki's death, the hanan moiety rebelled against the hurin, killed Quispe Yupanki, and gave the throne to Inka Roq'a, son of another of Qhapaq Yupanki's wives, Cusi Chimbo. Inka Roq'a moved his palace into the hurin section of Qusqu.

Name Succeeds Reign Died Notes
6) Inka Roq'a
magnanimous Inka
father c.1350-80 c.1380 Marries Mama Michay; improves the irrigation works of Qusqu and neighboring areas
7) Yawar Waqaq
one who cries blood
father c.1380-1410 c.1410 Marries Mama Chiklla
8) Wiraqucha father c.1410-38 1438 Original name was Hatun Thupaq, but after a having a vision of the god Wiraqucha, assumed his name; marries Mama Runtukaya; starting with him, the rulers assume the title Sapa Inka, "the unique Inka". The Sapa Inka has a council of four apus, each responsible for one-fourth of the empire; names son Urco as crown prince, but recognizes Pachkutiq after his great victory over the Chankas
9) Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki
he who shakes the earth with honor
father 1438-71 1471 First emperor of the Inka Empire; marries Mama Anawarkhi; had his two brothers, Qhapaq Yupanki and Wayana Yupanki, killed after the military campaign against the province of Chinchay-Suyu; killed his sons Tilqa Yupanki and Auki Yupanki; Amaru, the older son, was originally chosen to be co-regent and eventual successor, but he later chose Tupak Inka because Amaru was not a warrior; was the first Inka to retire
1438 – defeats the Chancas to control the Qusqu Valley and expand the empire; reorganizes the government into the Tawantinsuyu
c.1450 - builds the city of Machu Picchu as his private estate
1462 – conquers Quitu
c.1470 – under the leadership of his son Tupak conquers the Chimor civilization based at Chan Chan
1471 – dies of an unknown illness
10) Thupaq Inka Yupanki
noble Inca accountant
father 1471-93 1493 1463 – appointed to head the army; extends the empire northward along the Andes through modern Ecuador and developed a special fondness for Quitu, which he rebuilt with architects from Qusqu
1470s – conquered Chimor, which occupied the northern coast of what is now Peru, the largest remaining rival to the Inkas
1471 - Becomes emperor and greatly expands the Inka Empire
1476 - Defeats the Chuma Empire and their lands become part of the Inka Empire
1487 – A second capital is established at Quitu
11) Wayna Qhapaq,
the young mighty one
father 1493-1527 1527 Marries Koya Kusirimay, no male heirs; marries another sister Araua Oqllo, siring Wascar; greatly expanded the road network, building storehouses built along it for food so that aid could be quickly rushed to any who were in danger of starvation; leaves the newly conquered north to his favorite son Atawuallpa and the rest to his legitimate heir Wáscar
1493 - Becomes emperor; the Inka Empire reaches its peak under his reign, extending a distance of 2,500 miles, from the Ancasmayo River in the north on the modern border between Ecuador and Colombia, to the Maule River in the south, just below the modern city of Santiago, Chile, and into eastern Bolivia; constructs fortresses, religious temples and roads throughout the empire
c.1510 - The Inka abandon Macchu Picchu
1525 – He and his son Ninan Kuyochi die from small pox; leaves two other sons without naming a successor
1525-32 - His sons, Atawallpa (in Quitu) and Wascar (in Qusqu), fight over the crown. The Inka Empire fights a civil war for the next five years.
12) Wásqar brother 1527-32 1533 Killed by Atawallpa
13) Atawallpa brother 1532-3 7/26/1533 1532 - Defeats Wásqar and becomes the emperor; at the same time, Pizarro arrives in Peru; at the Battle of Cajamarca Atawallpa is captured and held for ransom by Pizarro
1533 – Executed by the Spanish
11/15/1533 - Pizarro captures Qusqu
1535 - Makes Lima the capital

Third Dynasty

Name Succeeds Reign Died Notes
14) Thupaq Wallpa brother 1533 1533 Installed by Pizarro
15) Manqu Inka Yupanki
Manqu Qhapaq II
brother 1533-44 1544 Marries Kura Oqllu
1533 - Installed by Pizarro
2/1536 – Lays siege to Qusqu
8/1536 – Begins a siege of the Spanish in Qusqu that lasts a year
1537 - After his defeat, establishes an independent Inka state in Willkapampa
1544 – Murdered by supporters of Diego de Almagro who had previously assassinated Pizarro and who were in hiding under Manqu's protection; they in turn were all killed by Manqu's soldiers
16) Paullu Inka brother 1536-49 1549 Installed by the Spanish after Manqu Inka rebelled; ruled in Qusqu
17) Sayri Thupaq uncle 1544-61 1561 Son of Manqu Inka Yupanki; becomes Inka at the age of five; ruled in Willkapampa
18) Titu Kusi brother 1563-71 1571 Born in 1529; ruled in Willkapampa
19) Thupaq Amaru brother 1571-2 9/24/1572 Born 1545
1572 – Executed by the Spanish

Interregnum 1572-1780

Name Succeeds Reign Died Notes
Juana Condorcanki father
Miguel Condorcanki mother

Fourth Dynasty 1780-present

Name Succeeds Reign Birth Died Notes
21) Túpaq Amaru II father 1780-81 3/19/1742 5/18/1781 11/1780 – Begins a rebellion against the Spanish by capturing and killing the Spanish corregidor Antonio Arriaga
Killed by the Spanish
Fernando father 9/13/1822 POD: Escaped the slaughter of the family into the jungle
22) Manqu Qhápaq II father 1835-58 5/14/1803 3/22/58 Restores Empire on November 1, 1835; begins custom of taking a throne name of the early Inkas in order
23) Sinchi Roq'a II father 6/30/1829
24) Lluq'i Yupanki II father 1858-1909 2/30/1854 11/15/1909 Chile defeated in the Atacama War.
25) Mayta Qhapaq II father 1854-1942 1/2/1886 9/1/1942
26) Qhapaq Yupanki II father 1942-66 3/2/1907 4/14/1966 1964 – Promulgates the Constitution
27) Inka Roq'a II father 1966-91 7/28/1939 10/21/1991
28) Yawar Waqaq II father 1991- 8/31/1970
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