History of Filipinas
Incomplete History Proposal for Filipinas
ca 60.000 BP: Human fossil records indicate that the island of Bornei has been inhabited for sixty thousand years. The aboriginal population, collectively known as the Negritos or Aytas, cross prehistoric land bridges to eventually settle in the islands of Luzoñg, the Vizayas, and Maguindanao.
ca 5.000 BP: Successive waves of Austronesian migrants begin to pour into the islands of Luzoñg, the Vizayas, and Maguindanao, pushing the aboriginal population into the interior or absorbing them through intermarriage.
Early Srivijjayan Influences
3rd century-5th century: The origins of the Srivijjayan Empire is shrouded in mystery, but it must have originated sometime between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD. NOTE: Up until the arrival of Europeans, all states within insular SEAsia at this time are technically thalassocracies -- claiming sovereigning over expanses of water rather than land, and thereby controlling trade. Land itself is controlled by the datos (chiefs). These datos were part of what social anthropologists call a chiefdom -- a loose federation of chiefs bound by loose ties of personal allegiance to a senior among them. The head of such a chiefdom, the rajja, exercises authority over his supporting datos, but not over their subjects or territory, and his primacy stems from his control of local or foreign trade, and the ability to redistribute luxury goods desired by others. A rajja who excercises authority over other rajjas is a majarajja. Only lowlanders, especially around the capitals, embrace Hindu-Buddhist traditions.
8th century: Srivijjayan merchants began arriving in Filipinas to trade. Hindu-Buddhist influences entered Filipinas at this time.
9th century: According to Srivijjayan copperplate inscriptions, an unknown Srivijjayan dato is assigned the position of pamagat bhupati (vassal and chief) of Sribuza, in the Bornei Bay area, by the majarajja of Srivijjaya. According to a fragment of another copperplate inscription found in Laguna de Bay (near Manila), another unknown Srivijjayan dato is assigned the position of pamagat bhupati of Diwata, in the Butuán area near the gold-rich Diwata mountains and the Agusan river basin of the northeastern part of the island of Maguindanao. The pamagat bhupati of Diwata assigns a dato, Jjayadewa, the position of pamagat senapati (commander and chief) of Tondó, in the Manila Bay area of the central part of the island of Luzoñg.
Early Independent Rajjaos
10th century: Srivijjayan influence weakens in Sribuza and Diwata and the vassal relationship with Srivijjaya comes to an end. Sribuza and Diwata both drop their Srivijjayan names and become known as Bornei and Butuán respectively. Bornei, Butuán, and Tondó now become separate Rajjaos. Pottery finds indicate that all come under the Chinese-Champa sphere of economic influence. Chinese annals state that Bornei and Tondó send tribute missions to China and are recognized as tributary states - a requirement for legal trade with China.
1003: Butuán also tries to establish formal diplomatic ties with China. According to Chinese annals, Rajja Quilíng of Butuán had sent his envoys, minister Liyijan and deputy Gaminan, on a tribute mission to China. The envoys arrive on the 3rd of October in the Chinese capital bringing with them red parrots and tortoise shells. They petition the Chinese emperor for tribute status for Butuán -- which simply meant ceremonial recognition in the form of regimental banners and ceremonial flags -- a requirement for legal trade. Unfortunately, the Chinese emperor had already banned the export of such royal regalia the year before.
1007: According to Chinese annals, Rajja Quilíng sends another tribute mission and envoy, Ysuhan, who carried the normal request for symbols that would give Butuán equal status with Champa. The Chinese court denies the the request saying that Butuán did not rank in importance as Champa in Chinese maritime trade. Nothing is known about what status China has ranked Bornei and Tondó with regards to Champa.
1011: According to Chinese annals, a new Rajja of Butuán, Rajja Sri Bata Shajja, sends his envoy, Licansi, to China with a message inscribed on a gold tablet and gifts like the "White Dragon" camphor, cloves from the Malucos, and a slave. Licansi comes to China at a time when the Chinese emperor was making a sacrifice to the earth god Fen-yin at the vernal equinox, a rite of spring. The emperor was kindly disposed and honored the envoy with the military title of "Cherished Transformed and Gracious-to-Strangers General" and regalia consisting of flags, penons, and armor to honour a distant land. But recognition of Butuán as equal in status with Champa was not given.
1257: The Rajjao of Ternate is established in the Malucos.
The First Christian Rajjaos
1270-1368: Yuan Dynasty in China, where the Mongol Khans, in a spirit of ecumenicity, welcome to their court Muslim, Buddhist, and Assyrian Christian missionaries. The Sulúgan Tarsila (geneological history) mention the coming of Chinese Assyrian Christian missionaries to Sulug during this period. These Chinese Assyrian Christians settle in the Quinabatañgan river delta of northern Bornei island, where they build the first Christian Church in the region. The Sulug Tarsalila also mentions one missionary, Tuhan Pilip, who marries the daughter of Rajja Siripada of Butuán at this period. He converts the Sulugs into Assyrian Christianity, and is today regarded by the Borneian Church as a Diua (Saint). Diua Tuhan Pilip is the patron saint and "apostle" to the Filipinas, the Malucos, and Bornei. The Filipinas is named after him.
1293: The Majjapájit Empire is founded by Kertarajjasa. He tricks his Chinese (Mongol) allies into aiding him to conquer the Rajjao of Singjasari of eastern Jjava, only to turn against them afterwards.
1331-1364: Gajja Mada is prime minister and regent in Majjapajit. He extends Majjapajit control to the entire island of Bornei, making Bornei itself a vassal state. Chinese annals within the same period indicate: that Tondó is now the capital of the Rajjáo of Luzoñg, which controls trade between the islands of Mindoro and Paraguán, and the southern half of the island of Luzoñg; and that Butuán is now the capital of the Rajjáo of Vizaya, which controls trade between the entire Sulug archipelago, the entire island of Magindanáo except the Magindanáo river basin, and the entire Vizayan archipelago except the island of Mindoro. Chinese annals also indicate that two other Rajjaos have emerge in Filipinas at this time: the Rajjao of Cabolohan, with its capital at Binalatoñgan (now called San Carlos, in Pañgasinán, *here*) controlling trade within the northern half of the island of Luzoñg; and Maguindanao, with its capital Cota Bato ("Stone Fort") controlling trade within the Magindanao river basin. Both of these rajjaos manage to send regular tribute missions to China.
1347: According to Ibn Batuta's travelogue, a place called Tawalisi is ruled by a warrior princess called Urdujja. Historians today don't agree on the authenticity of Ibn Batuta's travelogue, nor do they agree on the location of Tawalisi, but many Filipinos believe (based on Batuta's description of sailing distances) that Tawalisi is the Rajjao of Cabolohan.
1377: Majjapájit captures the Srivijjayan capital of Palembang in Sumatra and asserts its control over the island. Most of the Srivijjayan royals flee to Malacca where they establish their new capital. Others, who have become Assyrian Christians, flee elsewhere to establish their own Christian rajjaos. These are: Rajja Guru Baquir, who flees to Bornei, marries a Chinese Assyrian Christians from Quinabatañgan, ousts the incumbent Hindu-Buddhist ruler of Bornei, and becomes its first Christian Rajja; Rajja Baguinda of Minañgcabáo, who flees to Sulúg and declares its independence from the Hindu-Buddhist Rajjáo of Vizaya, and becomes its first Christian Rajja; and Rajja Cabuñgsúan of Palembañg, who flees to Maguindanáo and becomes the first Christian Rajja among the Assyrian Christians residing there. Their choice of these territories was dictated by information that these territories had rich ports with many Assyrian Christian converts but without genuine Christian rulers.
1386: The religious leaders of the newly established Christian Rajjaos of Bornei, Maguindanáo, and Sulúg hold a synod in Quinabatañgan. Due to their relative isolation from the Holy Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East in Persia, they decide to establish their own Borneian Church but still in full communion with the Holy Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East. Among themselves they elect the first Majaguru (Patriarch) of the Borneian Church, who will reside in Quinabatañgan.
The Rise of Bornei
1405: After rebuilding Bornei's fortunes, Rajja Carna of Bornei heads a tribute mission to China, which means that Bornei had by this time regained its independence from Majjapajit. Meanwhile, the famous Chinese admiral, Zheng He, visits Cabolohan, Luzoñg, and Vizaya in his first expedition.
1410: According to Chinese annals, Luzoñg sends its last tribute mission to China.
1417: By this time Vizaya had lost control of the Sulug archipelago - probably over religious reasons. Sulug becomes an independent Christian rajjao, while Vizaya remains a Hindu-Buddhist rajjao. According to Chinese annals, Sulug is recognized as a Chinese tributary when three Sulug rulers, Rajja Kalabating, Paduca Batara, and Paduca Prabu, present themselves to the Chinese court, along with their families and chiefs - altogether 340 persons. Paduca Batara is given an imperial jade seal. Chinese annals also state that Paduca Batara dies in China and is given a regal and Christian burial.
1421: According to Chinese annals, Sulug sends a second tributary mission presenting non-Sulug products like brazilwood, black pepper, tin, and camphor to the Chinese court. Paduca Batara's younger brother, Paduka Suli, also presents a sample of Sulug's legendary pearls recorded in the Chinese annals as weighing 7 ounces.
1473-1521: Rajja Bolquía I of Bornei reigns in Bornei. In this period, Majjapajit finds itself unable to control the rising power of Srivijjaya, which has been rebuilding its fortunes after moving its capital to Malacca. Rajja Bolquía I takes advantage of the situation to assert Borneian control over the entire island of Bornei by conquering the Rajjaos of Sambas, Pontianac, Banjjarmasin, Pasir Cotei, Ceravah, and Boloñgan. By the end of Bolquía I's reign, he is recognized as a Majarajja like his contemporaries in the Srivijjayan and Majjapajit empires.
1475: Ternate converts to Christianity.
First European Contacts
1509: The Portuguese visit Malacca for the first time.
1511: In April, Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Malacca, and on the 10th of August his forces take Malacca. The Majarajja of Srivijjaya flees and establishes a new capital in Ujjong Tanah. During the battle, Panday Pira (1483-1573), a Luzoñgese smith from Pampanga, witnesses the battle where Portuguese guns overpower Srivijjayan defenses. Later that year, Pira invents the lantaca, the Filipino-Borneian bronze culverin. Variants of his invention spreads throughout SEAsia in the following years, allowing SEAsians to better resist European attempts to colonize the region.
1521: The Magellanes Expedition, led by Ferdinando de Magellanes, a Portuguese explorer under the services of the Castillean Crown, was attempting a circumnavigation of the world when it stumbles upon the Marianas Islands (which Magallanes names "Islas Ladrones") in the beginning of March. About a week later, the expedition enters Vizayan waters, and meet Rajja Aui and his brother Dato Colambu in Limasawa Island, where the two were hunting. Magellanes names the entire Filipinas archipelago "Las Islas de San Lazaro". In April, the expedition was guided to Sugbú, where Dato Humabon was ruling. A mass baptismal service was held there, where Aui, Colambu, Humabon, and their relatives all converted to Christianity. But this was just a facade to befriend the Castillians. Dozens of Castillians were later slaughtered by the end of the month, and the expedition frantically pulls out. (Unlike *here*, Magellanes survives). The expedition is lost, but they manage to find a guide, who guides them to Bornei in July. There, they encounter a jjunco (junk), aboard which is Dato Aché, who is the Laksamana (Admiral) of the Majarajja of Bornei and son of the Rajja of Luzoñg. Dato Aché had just returned from sacking Laue in the southern part of Bornei Island for refusing to obey the Majarajja of Bornei. The Castillians capture Dato Aché and release him upon ransom for food. The expedition quickly move away from Borneian waters, but are still lost. They survive by seizing the occassional jjunco and kidnapping people to ransom for food. In November, after seven months of aimless sailing in the waters of Filipinas, they finally sight the legendary Spice Islands of the Malucos. They put in at Ternate and befriend the local Christian ruler, Rajja Manál, who is only too happy to have a new Christian ally against the Hindu rajjao of Tidore. By December, the last surviving two ships, the waters of the Trinidad and the Victoria, are loaded with spices and sail out of Malucos. The Trinidad, creaking with age, comes apart and sinks, and four survivors are stranded in Ternate. The Victoria limps back to Castilla with only 19 survivors, including Ferdinando de Magellanes himself, the following year.
1523-1525: The Loaisa Expedition, sailing from Nôva León (Méjico), landfalls on the eastern side of the island of Magindanao. The northeast monsoon winds prevents it from entering Vizayan waters. Instead, it enters Malucan waters. Loaisa offers support to Christian Ternate in a dispute with Hindu Tidore - his men build a Castillian post at Ternate.
1527-1529: The Saavedra Expedition, has pretty much the same results as the previous expedition, ending up in Ternate. Saavedra builds the fort of San Juan de Ternate.
1536: Antonio de Galvano, governor of the Castillian colony in Ternate, establishes another Castillian post at Ambón. Castillians imprison Rajja Tabarijji of Ternate due to suspicions of anti-Castilian activity, and replace him with his brother.
1542-1546: The Villalobos Expedition, sailing from Nôva León (Méjico), stumbles upon the Caroline Islands, Yap, and Palao. Then the expedition proceeds west and touches at the island of Maguindanao. The expedition continues to sail around the southern side of the island of Maguindanao and into the Vizayas. Once out of Surigao Strait, the expedition is carried by strong winds back to the Malucos. Accompanying the expedition are Isidorian Catholic missionaries.
1556: The king of Castille, in a letter to Luis de Velasco, viceroy of Nôva León (Méjico), approves plans to annex the Islas Poniente (as the Castillians called Filipinas at the time).
1560: Another Castilian outpost is established in Manado, Minajasa.
1564: Miguel López de Legazpi, a Basque in the service of Castillian crown, leads an expedition that leaves Nôva León (Méjico) for Filipinas. Accompanying the expedition is another famous Basque, the Isidorian Catholic friar, Urdaneta.
1565: The Legazpi Expedition, lands in the Marianas in January and formally claims the Marianas Islands for Castila-Leon and establishes a Castilian outpost in Agana. The expedition enters Vizayan waters in February 13. Eager to find a strong ally against Bornei, the Rajja of Vizaya, Rajja Tupáz, allows Legazpi to establish a Castillian colony in Sugbú in April 27. Urdaneta convinces Rajja Tupáz and a number of his followers to convert to Isidorian Catholicism. By June, the flagship San Pedro is readied for the return trip to Nôva León (Méjico) with Legazpi's 17-year-old grandson, Felipe de Salcedo as commander and Urdaneta as pilot-advisor. The historic crossing is successful with the San Pedro reaching Acapulco on September 8. This same route will be followed by the Manila Galleons every year until 1815.
The Castilian Reduction of Filipinas
1567: In June 15, the king of Castila approves the distribution of encomiendas in pacified (i.e. Catholicized) islands of Filipinas and Malucos. This is to become the cutting edge of Castilian colonization and Isidorian Catholization foisted upon the unsuspecting population. The Castilians first begin by dividing up the islands of the Vizayas and the Malucos into encomiendas. As defined an encomiendo was "a right conceded by royal bounty to well deserving person in the Indies, to recieve and enjoy for their own use, the tribute of natives assigned to them, with the obligation, however, of providing for the spiritual and temporal welfare of the people assigned, especially in defending them and maintaining peace in the locality where they live." However, missionaries will later reveal that many of the recipients of an encomienda, the encomenderos, abuse their power to loot the local population. Also, pacified principales (nobles and chiefs), though still enjoying certain prestige and influence and excempted from paying tribute themselves, are no longer to be recipients of tributes. So many principales, despite the retention of certain privileges, resist the encomienda system. Many also continue to practice Borneian Christianity in secret. Those of them revealed as "Nestorian heretics" are, however, stripped of their privileges. In August 20, two ships from Nôva León (Méjico), the San Pedro and the San Lucas, arrive in Sugbú with 200 men, arms and ammunition, and supplies. This is the first of what will be yearly reinforcements from Nôva León (Méjico) until the last of the Manila Galleons in 1815. Between September 28 and January 1 of the following year, Sugbú endures a Borneian Blockade. A Borneian fleet of 4 jjuncos, 5 coracoras, and 30 praos, led by Laksamana (Admiral) Acóz, stands off Sugbú, blocking the entrances to the settlement. What follows is a protracted exchange of notes between Legazpi and Acóz, with the latter threatening to attack. Legazpi for his part plays the consummate diplomat replying to Acóz's letters in lengthy expositions but never quite conceding to his tenuous position. Acóz asks Legazpi to join him in a war against Majjapajit, which Legazpi politely rejects. The exchange of notes continues until Acóz suddenly lifts the blockade of Sugbú and sails away. Apparently, Acóz was hastily called back to Bornei where Majjapajit had besieged Banjjarmasin.
1569: Legazpi considers Sugbú too vulnerable to another Borneian seige and impossible to defend. He decides to establish a new headquarters and colony in the island of Panay. The new colony of Capiz (Roxas City *here*) is established August 14. Shortly after, a small fleet of Borneian and Sulug coracoras raid Sugbú and take a number of native prisoners. With some 200 Vizayan warriors and 40 Castilian soldiers, Legazpi retaliates by razing the Luzoñg-Borneian fortresses of Mamburao (in northwestern Mindoro island) and Lúbañg.
1570: In the Malucos, Rajja Babula began a five year long seige of the Castilian fortress in Ternate. Meanwhile, a fleet carrying 100 Castilian and 300 Vizayan soldiers, under the command of Martín de Goití and Juán de Salcedo as deputy commander, enter Manila Bay on May 7 and sail past the palisaded fortress of Manila, noting several lantacas, which guarded the town of Tondó, the capital of the Rajjao of Luzoñg. The Borneian Christian co-rulers of Luzoñg, Rajja Aché (the same one kidnapped by the Magellanes expedition back in 1521 - by now a very old man and nicknamed "Rajja Matandáh", which means "Old Rajja"), Rajja Dula (the high chief of Tondó, who is better known as Lacandula), and Rajja Solimán (Bornei's chief to the fortress of Manila, and who is Rajja Dula's nephew and the son-in-law of the Majarajja of Bornei), tentatively welcome the foreigners. De Goití impresses Rajja Solimán such that a blood compact is made between the two personages and a concession allowing the Castillians to establish a settlement just south of the fort of Manila, and that the Castilians need not pay tribute. However, several agitated fisherfolk of some coastal villages south of Manila expressed their hostilities towards Rajja Solimán, and begin to spread the rumour that the rulers of Luzoñg would attack the Castilians as soon as the monsoon rains begin to fall. Furthermore, a message later comes from Rajja Solimán stating that Rajja Dula was preparing to attack the Castilians. On the morning of May 24, with tension heavy in the air, a watch on De Goití's frigate points to sails in the bay. De Goití quickly sends a party on a native craft to investigate, and upon seeing that the sails belong to friendly fishermen, orders the patrol boat back by firing a shot from a deck gun. This was all that was needed to rouse the cannoneers at the fort of Manila, who are just as jumpy as the Castilians, believing that De Goití had started the war. The guns of the fort are no match for the guns of the frigates, and the fort is raised to the ground afterwhich De Goití's fleet pulls out and returns to Capíz. Ironically, monsoon rains began to fall that day...
1571: In April, almost a year after De Goití's assault on Manila, Legazpi leads another expedition to Manila with a fleet carrying 210 Castilians and 300 Vizayan soldiers. Rumors have it that Bornei has sent reinforcements to Manila. However, Legazpi lands his force in Manila unopposed and wrangles a "treaty of peace and friendship" from Rajja Aché, Rajja Dula, Rajja Solimán (who was still sulking over what had happened the previous year), and the other principales of Manila. The Dato Macabebe and other principales of Pampanga, however, refuse the treaty. They chide the Manila-Tondó principales for being women and hustle a force of 2000 men on 40 coracoras, which stand off the Tondó shore, and challenge the Castilians to a showdown in Bancúsay. De Goití, in nine bancas loaded with arquebusiers, move against the Pampangueño force and mows it down, killing Dato Macabebe. On June 24, Legazpi formally establishes the City of Manila and builds Fort Santiago on the very spot of Rajja Solimán's former fortress. He then proceeds to pacify Pampanga with Rajja Solimán and Rajja Dula as peacemakers with an armed force commanded by De Goití. Both Filipino nobles are reluctant guides and soon slip back to Tondó. After Pampanga is pacified by July, De Goiti penetrates into Cabolohan from Pampanga and meets its Borneian Christian ruler, Rajja Casiquis. In August, Rajja Aché dies, and Rajja Solimán becomes paramount Rajja of Luzoñg. The young rajja meanwhile continues to hope that reinforcements will arrive from Bornei. Legazpi also dies in August, and is succeeded by Guido de Lavezaris, Legazpi's accountant who becomes acting governor of Filipinas. Rumours persists in Tondó that Bornei would send a rescue force, so Lavezaris initiates negotiations with Bornei for the establishment of friendly commercial relations, not knowing that the Borneian royalty are furious over the loss of Luzoñg. Negotiations fail.
1572: Juán de Salcedo sails up the western coast of the island of Luzoñg and lands in Cabolohan. Rajja Casiquis allows the Castilians to establish themselves in Vigan in the Ylocos coast in return for tribute payments. However, the Castilians will in the next few years consequently divide up the entire Ylocos region into encomiendas in order to pay the tributes. After establishing Vigan, Salcedo sails further north with three small boats to explore the northern portions of the island of Luzoñg. He sails up the Cagayan river where he is repelled back by hostile tribes. Then he rounds Cape Engaño, sails south along the eastern coast of Luzoñg island where he then tries to cut across land on foot. He almost drowns in Laguna de Bay where he is discovered and brought back to Manila. Salcedo's explorations give the Castilians the configuration of the island of Luzoñg and its population concentrations. It forms the basis for the grant of encomiendas to veteran Castilian officers and soldiers unpaid for their services since 1565. The Castilians then begin to divide up the island of Luzoñg into encomiendas in the same way they did with the Vizayas and the Malucos, where the principales (chiefs) who resist the encomienda system are executed and the village they ruled sacked. Like in the Vizayas, pacified Filipino principales, though still enjoying certain prestige and influence, were no longer to be recipients of tributes.
1574: In June 21, a royal decree confirms the names of "Insegne y Siempre Leal Ciudad" and "El Nuevo Reina de Castilla" for Manila and the island of Luzoñg. On the same date, Fray Martín de Rada, who is the most senior of the missionaries in Filipinas, issues his famous "Opinion on Taxation of the Islands of Filipinas". The opinion consists of arguments questioning the legitimacy of the encomiendas, and the excesses attendant to the true conditions prevailing in the islands. A litany of "unprovoked attacks on villages, burning of houses of those who fled, stripping those who submitted peaceably of all their possessions," etc. were cited. But the Audiencias in Méjico and Manila reject the idea of abolishing the encomienda system, though they concede to the idea that the tributes must by law be pegged and payable in cash or kind. In November 29, the Chinese corsair, Limahong, arrives in Manila Bay with a fleet of 70 large junccos. Rajja Dula mistakes this for the long awaited Borneian rescue force and gathers a force of 1000 warriors to take the side of Limahong against the Castilians. Rajja Dula and Rajja Solimán team up in Navotas to gather a bigger force of 2000 warriors, but are later dissuaded by Juan de Salcedo, who had by then become a good friend of the two chiefs. The Lacandula Revolt is an aborted uprising. Instead, the Limahong fleet is repelled and flees north to Cabolohan where Rajja Casiquis, hoping to provide a counterbalance to the Castilian establishment in Vigan, allows them to establish a Chinese settlement in Lingayen.
1575: Rajja Dula dies of old age. Meanwhile, the Castilians and Rajja Solimán team up with a force of 2000 warriors to besiege Limahong's settlement in Lingayen. Rajja Casiquis takes the side of Limahong, but Limahong is forced out of Lingayen leaving only the Limahong Tunnel, a tunnel dug for six months, that served as his escape route and only lasting legacy of his failed attempt. Rajja Casiquis is arrested and executed, and Cabolohan is divided up into encomiendas. Meanwhile, in the Malucos, Rajja Babula finally expels the Castilians from Ternate after a five year siege. The Castilians build a fort in Tidore instead, which is still Hindu-Buddhist.
1576: Castilians build a fort in Ambón.
1579: The Isidorian Catholic Diocese of Manila is established, claiming jurisdiction over all the Christians within the Filipinas and the Malucos. The Borneian Christian leadership within the Filipinas and the Malucos had to acquiesce to becoming Isidorian Catholics.
Revolts and Borneian Privateers
1585: Pampangueños plot a revolt against the encomienda system, involving Borneians in their plan to assault the Castilians in Intramuros. The plan was, however, betrayed and the Pampangueño principales are arrested and executed.
1587: Rajja Dula's son, Dato Magat Salamat, plots a bigger conspiracy against the Castillians. Among the co-plotters are Rajja Solimán, Dato Martin Panga and Dato Callao de Tondó, Dato Joan Bassi de Taguíg, Dato Pedro Balinguit de Pandacan, Dato Dionisio Capolo de Candaba, Dato Omaghicon de Navotas, and Dato Felipe Salonga de Polo. The plot gains secret followers throughout Luzoñg and Bornei. A Isidorian Catholic Japanese, Dionisio Fernandez, strikes an agreement with a Japanese sea captain, Joan Gayo, for the supply of arms from Japan plus the support of Japanese warriors. The Japanese are to be remunerated by half of the tributes collected. The plot builds an underground for over a year until it is leaked to Castilian authorities by two Catholic Luzoñgese. The Castilians moved quickly to arrest the conspirators, who are summarily executed or exiled. (Rajja Solimán becomes the last to hold a royal office until the Rajjao is reestablished in 1898). They also burn down several Luzoñgese villages, which had been encouraged to revolt by the Borneians. After learning of this, Bornei and her tributaries (Sulug, Ternate, and Maguindanao) start a privateering war against the Castilians and particularly the Catholic Vizayans (whom they blame for bringing the Castilians into the Filipinas). The privateering war will last for more than three centuries, kidnapping about a thousand Catholic Vizayans yearly.
1589: Cagayan and Ylocos stage a revolt against the encomienda system. The revolt is defeated with the help of Luzoñgese troops.
1591: Ternate lays siege to the Castilians in Ambon, but fail to take it.
1593: Ternate lays siege to the Castilians in Ambon again, and fail again.
1595: The Diocese of Manila is elevated to an Archdiocese. A synod is convened in Manila gathering all the Christian leaders within the Filipinas and the Malucos. It is decided to establish a Borneian Catholic Rite. However, the Borneian liturgy and the Mesopotamian connection of the native clergy laid them open to suspicion to the "herecy" of Nestorianism. For the next three hundred years, only locally born Castilians are allowed to become high ranking clerics within the Borneian Catholic Church.
1596: Dato Magalat and his brother, refusing to convert to Catholicism, incite the people of Cagayán to revolt. The revolt is squelched and Magalat and his family are exiled to Manila. Governor Tello de Guzmán pardons Magalat and allows him and his family to return to Cagayán. No sooner has he returned home than he incites the principales of Tuguegarao and other villages to take up arms. They kill a number of Castilians and Borneian Catholic Filipinos. Magalat holds off the Castilians in open battle, so the Castilians hire an assassin who succeeds in killing Magalat. The revolt then fizzles out.
1600: A severe earthquake hits Manila. The Castilians engage the Batavians in a naval battle against a fleet commanded by Admiral Oliver Noort and win. The Batavians will later establish themselves in Formosa.
1603: Chinese residents of Manila revolt. They are driven away to San Pablo, Laguna, where they make their last stand, but are eventually defeated.
1635: As a result of continuous privateering attacks from Sulug and Maguindanao on Castilian controled Vizayas and Luzoñg islands, Castilians establish the fortress of Fuerza de San José in Zamboanga, which is strategically located to command the Basilan Straights, the waters of which was the ordinary course of the Sulugs and Maguindanaoan privateering vessels infesting the coasts of the Visayas.
1660: As a result of nonpayment of army wages, an uprising, led by Andrés Malong, a native army officer commissioned with the Castilian authorities, is started against Castilian rule in Cabolohan. (It was no consolation to the Castilians that they hadn't been paid either because the money hadn't been sent to the Filipinas). There were nearly 10,000 men under Andrés Malong in Pañgasinán province. Eventually 40,000 of them took to war under him, including a number of abled generals. Malong tries to reestablish the Rajjao of Cabolohan stretching from the Ylocos and Cagayan provinces in the north to the province of Pañgasinán in the south. He also tries to incorporate the Luzoñgese province of Pampanga into this domain - an idea which the Pampangueños and other Luzongese are not too fond of. The dispersal of his forces later proves to be his undoing. It weakens his own defenses in Pañgasinán, enabling the Castilians and Luzoñgese forces to capture him and suppress his revolt before reinforcements could arrive from the other Luzoñgese provinces. Malong was subsequently executed.
1661: After failing to defeat the Qing dynasty in order to restore the Ming dynasty in China, Cojjingco (1624-1662) is forced to retreat. He leads what is left of his troops to Formosa. By the end of the year, he chases out the Batavians, who have been ruling there for more than 30 years. Cojjingco devotes himself to making Formosa into an effective base for anti-Qing sympathizers, who want to restore the Ming Dynasty to power.
1662: Rumours spread that Cojjingco intends to conquer Filipinas. The Sangleyes (Chinese-Filipinos) are persecuted. Many flee to Bornei and Sulug. Governor Sabiniano Manrique de Lara signs a decree on the 6th of May ordering the immediate military evacuation of the fort in Zamboanga, and of other Castilian territories in the spice islands of the Malucos (i.e., Manado, Ternate, Tidore, and Ambon) to reinforce Manila against the rumoured attack. The Borneian Catholic missionaries and the Chavacanos (Castilian creole speakers), who are both already numerous and influential in the Malucos by this time, decide to be left behind to tend to the religious and governing affairs of their new found home and try to "hold the forts down" until the troops return. Cojjingco's attack on Manila, however, never materializes as Cojjingco dies the same year. Despite Cojjingco's death, the troops are never returned to Ternate, Tidore, and Ambon. Curiously, this reshuffling of troops around the Filipinas and the Malucos help spread the Chavacano language, which then becomes the lingua franca throughout the islands.
1667: Bornei and its tributaries are still sending its privateers to Vizayas. Castilians establish the fortress of Santa Isabel in Taytay, northern Paraguán (Palawan *here*), after failing to establish a similar fort in Balábac, which was decimated by malaria.
1668: A contingent of Borneian Catholic missionaries, led by Padre Diego Luís de San Vitores, lands in Agana, Guám, to establish a Borneian Catholic mission in the Marianas. Chief Quipuha of Agana welcomes the missionaries and later allows himself to be baptized by San Vitores as Juán Quipuha, and donates land for the missionaries.
1672: On the 2nd of April, Padre San Vitores and his Vizayan assistant, Pedro Calansor, are assassinated by chiefs Matapañg and Hurao of Tumón. It is said that Padre San Vitores had baptized Chief Matapañg's baby girl without the chief's consent. However, it is more likely that the two chiefs became discontent with the Castilian encomienda system imposed on them and took it out on the defenseless missionaries. The assassination sparks an all out war throughout the Marianas. The war sparks the decimation of the pure Chamorro race. The missionaries are there for peaceful purposes, but the Castilian authorities are merciless in their attempts to protect their precious Manila Galleon trade route. Thousands are killed, not only by war, but also by disease.
1695: The war in Guam comes to an end after an estimate of 200,000 Chamorro casualties, leaving only a thousand Chamorro survivors in Guam. The population is supplemented with Vizayan, Luzoñgese, and Caboloano immigrants. Chamorros in Guam are forced to settle in just five villages: Agana, Agat, Umatac, Pago, and Fena. The Chamorros in the northern Marianas hold on to their resistance.
1718: Castilians reestablish the garrisons in Zamboanga and Manado, which have since 1662 been run by the Borneian Catholic missionaries and the Chavacanos. Castilians also begin to build other forts all over Filipinas to check the privateering raids coming from Bornei and her tributaries.
1721: The Castilians now begin series of indecisive campaigns against Bornei and her allies. The campaign, however, accomplishes no result other than to carry the conflict into Borneian and related territories.
1730: Conducting a retaliatory policy of attack, the Borneians, Sulugs, and Maguindanaoans organized a force of 3000 warriors and the island of Paraguán is raided. Hundreds of Borneian Catholic captives are taken and the entire coastline is pillaged. This same force besiege the Castilian fort at Taytay but is unable to make a breach in the walls after twenty days of severe fighting.
1731: The Sulug capital falls to the Castilians. In retaliation for the raid on Paraguán, the Generál Ignácio Iriberri ravage the other Sulug islands. This so enrages the Sulugs that for the next ten years, Sulug raids will assume such proportions that no community on the Vizayan sea coasts are safe from attack. The Borneian Catholic population of the Vizayas take to the mountains, leaving a desolate coastline. Lookout towers are constructed along all the coasts to warn of the approach of privateers and the villagers are ordered by the Castilian government to concentrate into groups of no less than 500 inhabitants.
1735: A treaty of "Permanent Peace and Alliance" is ratified between the Governor-General of Filipinas on one side and the Majarajja of Bornei and the Rajjas of Sulug and Maguindanao on the other.
1740: The Chamorros of the Northern Marianas (except Rota, which still resists Castilian control) are removed from their home islands and exiled to Guam.
1748: The treaty of "Permanent Peace and Alliance" between Filipinas on one side and Bornei and her tributaries on the other has not been observed by either party and is finally abrogated by the ascent of Rajja Bantilan to the throne of Sulug.
1762-1763: A Borneian fleet enters Manila Bay in September demanding the surrender of the city. Because the Castilians refuse, the city is bombarded. Manila capitulates in October. Witnessing the event is a principale named Diego Silañg de Pañgasinan. He realizes that the Castilians are vulnerable and organizes a revolt against the Castilians throughout Luzoñg and Cabolohan. The Borneians support the revolt. The Castilians and their loyalist allies regroup in Pampanga. They hire two loyalist mestizo assassins to kill Diego Silañg. He is killed by the assassins in May, 1763, afterwhich his wife, Gabriela, continues the fight until she too was killed by assassins and the revolt fizzles out. By the end of the year, the Castilians regain control of Manila when the Borneians are kicked out.
The Filipino Revolution
1839-1841: The Cofradía de San José Revolt is led by Apolinario de la Crúz, a.k.a. Hermano Pule (1815-1841). Hermano Pule had always wanted to become a Borneian Catholic priest. He went to Manila to join a monastic order, but he was denied admittance because he was a native. He then openly declares his communion with the Borneian Christianity and founded the religious brotherhood called the Cofradía de San José in 1832. By 1839, his brotherhood had won thousands of followers throughout Luzoñg. In that year, he seeks official recognition for his religious organization, but the Castilian authorities, fearful of his popularity and distrustful of what they call the "Nestorian Herecy", turns down his request. Finally, Hermano Pule gathers his followers and proclaims his war in defense of religious freedom. Stirred by his fiery speech, his followers raise the battle standard and hail him "Rajja of Luzoñg." In the 1st of November, 1841, after evading several attempts by the Castilians to capture him, Hermano Pule makes his last stand at Alitao, where he is beaten and captured. On November 4, 1841, he is executed in the town of Tayabas. Upon learning of the slaughter of the members of the cofradía, many native soldiers in Luzoñg mutineer. But the mutiny is supressed by government soldiers from Cabolohan and the Vizayas. Several members of the Cofradía flee to Bornei, Sulug, or Maguindanao.
1851: Castile establishes a protectorate over the Rajjao of Sulug. Officially the treaty states that Sulug can only regain its capital if it submits to Spanish sovereignty; however, the rajja interprets this as a friendly treaty of alliance and does not assume it means submission to Castilian rule. This misunderstanding later becomes a point of contention between the leadership of the rajjao and the Castilian government, and contributes to the general pro-independence sentiment spreading throughout the archipelago.
1860: The first masonic lodge is founded in Cavite. Lodges would later be founded throughout Filipinas. The lodges are founded by anti-clericals, and naturally anti-clericals flock largely to the standard. There is no idea at this time of separation from the mother country, but only of a more liberal form of government free from clerical rule.
1863: A severe earthquake destroys the chief public buildings, the cathedral, and other churches in Manila, except San Agustín.
1872: Some native clergy participated in a serious revolt against Castilian authority, which occur in Cavite. Three Filipino-Castilian priests who are members of the banned Cofradía de San José and who are implicated in the uprising, Gomez, Zamora, and Burgos, are executed. They, like the masons, are against the abuses of the Catholic friars. But after this 1872 insurrection at Cavite, the masons separate themselves from the more revolutionary native clergy.
The Caroline Islands become a Japanese protectorate.
1882-1896: Dr. José Rizal (1861-1896) travels to Europe to study. There, he became the leader of the Propaganda Movement, contributing numerous articles to its newspaper, La Solidaridad. Rizal's political program, as expressed in the newspaper, includes the integration of Filipinas as a province of Castila, representation in the Cortes, lifting the ban against a native clergy, freedom of assembly and expression, and equality of Filipinos and Castilians before the law. In 1886, he publishes his book, "Noli me Tangere", a passionate exposure of the evils of the friars rule, comparable in its effect to Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin". He publishes a sequel in 1891. In 1892, he returns to Filipinas against the advice of his parents and friends. By this time, Rizal is seen by the authorities as an insurrector. Upon his return, he found a nonviolent reform society, La Liga Filipina, in Manila, but is shortly thereafter deported to Manado. News of Rizal's deportation shocks many Filipinos. On the night of the 7th of July, 1892, Andrés Bonifacio, Valentin Díaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano and a few others, meet secretly at a house in Tondó, and decided to form a new secret masonic society called in Tagalog the "Catahastahasan, Cagalangalang na Catipunan nañg mañga Anác nañg Bayan" ("Highest and Most Venerated Association of the Sons and Daughters of the Land") or "Catipunan" for short. Their aims are to rid Filipinas of Castilian rule and reunify the entire archipelago with Bornei - recalling the "glorious days when Filipinas was part of a indio (native) Christian empire". The Catipunan is an ultra nationalist movement paralleling the SNOR movement in Eastern Europe. In 1896, the Catipunan, launches a revolt against Castilian rule. Although Rizal has no connections with the Catipunan or any part in the insurrection, he is arrested and tried for sedition by the military. Found guilty, he is publicly executed by a firing squad in Manila. His martyrdom convinces Filipinos that there is no alternative but independence from Castila and renunion with Bornei. On the eve of his execution, while confined in Fort Santiago, Rizal wrote "Mi Último Adiós" ("My Last Farewell"), a masterpiece of 19th-century Castillian verse.
1896-1897: The Catipunan Revolt continues, strengthened after the execution of Rizal. Revolt against Castilian rule spread like wildfire throughout Filipinas and the Malucos. There are several engagements, until finally, General Aguinaldo, at the head of the remnant of rebels, leaves Cavite and takes refuge near Angat in the province of Bulacán. The pact of Biak-na-bato is signed on the 14th of December, 1897. By the terms of this agreement, the Filipinos and the Malucans are not to plot against Castilian sovereignty for a period of three years, and Aguinaldo and his followers are to be deported for a period to be fixed by Castila.
1898: Hostilities break out between Florida and Castile. Castile tries to withdraw all troops in Filipinas to fight in the West Indies, but Indio (native) troops desert, refusing to leave. Filipinas peacefully declares its independence and allows the Castilians to keep Intramuros in Manila, the Marianas, Palao, and Guam as tribute states, but Castile will not recognize the independence of Filipinas and does not pay tribute for the next two decades.
1899-1902: In 1899, a number of negotiations begin to take place between the Filipinas and the Malucos (represented by members of the Catipunan and the Cofradía de San José), Bornei, Sulug, and Maguindanao, which eventually lead to the creation of a new federal Borneian-Filipino-Malucan state and a new Borneian-Filipino national church independent of Rome in 1902. They all agree to the following: to abolish the encomiendo system but to preserve the rights of the principales; to establish an elected monarchy (based loosely on similar states in Europe) with Bornei's Majarajja as the first Pañghulo; to establish the Asemblea as a general assembly of estates where all the Borneian-Filipino-Malucan classes (the principales (nobility), the ilustrados (burghers), the clérigos (clergy), and the peóns (farmers)) are represented, without any regard or distinction to their positions; and to unite the Borneian Catholic Church in the Filipinas and the Malucos with the Borneian Church. The Borneian Catholic Church breaks communion with Catholicism and reenters full communion with the Holy Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East, and under the guidance and vision of Gregorio Aglipay Crúz y Labayan, the Filipino-Malucan and Borneian counterparts united to form the Iglesia Borneiano Independiente (a.k.a. Aglipayan Church). However, many Filipino Borneian Catholics refused to break with Rome and prefer to remain in communion, claiming that it won't make a difference since Isidoran Filipinos are persecuted despite their loyalty to the church, and to this day, the second largest religion in Bornei-Filipinas is Roman Catholicism of the Isidoran rite.
1928: After more than twenty years of refusal to pay tribute, the Castilian territories of Intramuros, the Marianas, Palao, and Guam are occupied by Bornei-Filipinas-Malucos with Japanese assistance. Castila concedes defeat and agrees to pay tribute for Intramuros and Guam. It will also pay tribute to Japan for Guam. Obliged by the Japanese assistance, Bornei-Filipinas-Malucos enters into tributary relationship with Japan by agreeing to pay tribute for the Marianas and Palao.
1937-1947: The Great Oriental War takes place. Bornei-Filipinas-Malucos successfully defends itself against attempts by China to invade from the southwest via occupied Srivijjaya and Majjapajit. However, this caused Sinophobic riots across Filipinas after the war.
1949: The Malucos declares itself an independent ecotopic republic, fearing envirnomental devastation by perceived materialistic policies of the federal government of Bornei-Filipinas-Malucos. Manado, however, decides to stay within the federation.
1949: John Maximovitch, fleeing the persecution of the Chinese regime, settles with 2000 Russian Manchurians in Tubabao, Samar Province. They converted the Isidoran locals, dissatisfied with the poverty, to Eastern Orthodoxy. Although Maximovitch would eventually leave for Montrei in 1955, he was successful in converting the Waray islands of Samar and Leyte as well as northeastern Maguindanao island.
1950: The Pañghulo at that time, Maharajja Amado Tajuddin of Bornei, was found dead at his Manila palace. No one claimed responsibility, yet. The Maharajja of Vizaya takes his place. A wave of frenzy sweeps across Filipinas, accusing the Maharajja of Vizaya of complicity of the previous Pañghulo's murder.
1951: A Snorist Filipino group based in Luzong, called the Frente Nacional de la Renovación de las Filipinas [in English Front for National Renewal of Filipinas or FNRF, declares rebellion against what they called the "degenerate pro-Australasian clique". Although it had some eccletic beliefs, even Efiseyan overtones, this group is as admitted by Jesus Lava, ironically an illustrado and one of the leaders of the FNRF, had deliberately Snorist beliefs. They later admit that they poisoned Tajuddin for being an 'Australasian stooge' and 'CSDS plant.'
1952: An FNRF convoy assassinated the widow of Manuel Quezon, who is the Prime Minister of Bornei-Filipinas at the time of the Chinese invasion. A similar assault against the Pañghulo was foiled, but with heavy casualties [56 to be exact, including 23 civilians].
1953: General Ruperto Cangleon, a Great Oriental War hero, launched a coup against the Bornei-Filipinas government. It fails and Cangleon fled to Liuquiu. Later, the Pañghulo appoints Ramon Magsaysay, another GOW hero, as Secretary of War.
1954: Magsaysay's approach to the Army of National Rebirth is successful. Most of the leaders of the movement, including Luis Taruc [the Supreme Leader of the FNRF] and Lava were captured. A loan by Australasia, totaling 230,000,000 pesos at that time, was handed down to the government. As a reward, The Pañghulo appoints Magsaysay as Prime Minister.
1955: The Rajjao of Vizaya suddenly resigns from his office, claiming that he cannot withstand the accusations that he assassinated Tajuddin. Despite this, he along with Magsaysay crushed the Filipino Snorist rebellion. Diosdado Macapagal, the Rajjao of Luzong, is elected as the Pañghulo.
1956: Bornei-Filipinas signs a pact with Xrivijaya, Majjapahit, and Australasia, a mutual defense pact against Snorist aggression, seeing BF's experience with the rebellion.
The Micronesian Confederation is formally released from control of the Japanese coccai, with Emperor Saisei remaining as High King. Henceforth, Bornei-Filipinas pays tribute to the Confederation rather than to Japan for Palau and the Marianas.
1957: Ramon Magsaysay's airship crashes into Cebu causing his death. No acts of conspiracy were found [or so the official story goes] and it was purely the weather at fault; Carlos Garcia y Polistico becomes Prime Minister. Magsaysay is a well-loved Prime Minister, the highest in the early 20th century, and especially liked by the lower classes.
1958: Prime Minister Garcia introduces the Filipinas Primero [Filipinas First] policy, an autarkic policy that although made priority by Filipino business to those controlled by Chinese or Japanese, eventually ran afoul of some illustrado, claiming that they were given the 'rob Peter to pay Paul' policy.
1959: Panghulo Macapagal forced Garcia to resign from office. Claro M. Recto, a nationalist leader with ultranationalist beliefs that border SNORism, became Prime Minister.
1960: Claro M. Recto is assassinated in Rome, supposedly by CSDS agents employing Filipino Communists. Later, one of the CSDS Filipino agents known as Jose Maria Sison admitted that the Filipinas government ordered the assassination. He was later replaced by Fernando Lopez, a wealthy sugar plantation owner in the Vizaya Rajjao.
1961: A Borneian party called Partido Orang Bornei wins the elections in Bornei Rajjao. They demand that Bornei secede from Bornei-Filipinas, claiming that the government in Manila only served those of the Filipinas Islands. It was communist-oriented and allegedly funded by CSDS.
1962: A grenade was thrown against the royal palace in the Borneian capital. Luckily, the Rajja is on a vacation. 12 were killed though. Later, rumors of the Partido Orang Bornei behind assassination were confirmed when a convoy of Filipinas soldiers near Sandacan were ambushed.
1963: Prime Minister Lopez declared Ley Marcial [Martial Law] in Bornei island. However, the Filipino soldiers were unable to stop the rebellion. The real coup went when the Commander of the 3rd Bornei-Filipinas army decides to side with the POB rebels.
1964: A coup by General Fernando Marcos y Edralin deposed Lopez, calling him a 'servant of the Western nations'. He also declared Macapagal as insane and was forced out from his throne, and the regent for the Rajjao of Caboloan, Narciso Ramos who was a close confidant of Marcos, replaced him. This was odd, since only royals could occupy the throne, Caboloan had a royal family dispute.
Meanwhile, the rebellion in Bornei culminated in the capture of the capital. The General, Abraham Elpidio Merican, declared the Democratic Republic of Bornei. Fernando Marcos replied that he had no interest in reconquering Bornei so he allows its independence.
1965: Marcos later declares Tagalog, Ilocano, and Vizayan as official language of Filipinas alongside Chavacano. It remains in force today even in the later constitutions.
1966: A riot by militant students in Manila, protesting the renewal of the Sednîr pact, cause 37 deaths. Marcos later announced that he will step down because of this. He is true to his word and a journalist-lawyer named Benigno Aquino became Prime Minister.
1967: Aquino begins social reforms, not communist but rather in Aquino's words, "the implementation of social justice". He gains much following in Luzong that he even publicly gave up his stake at the Hacienda Luisita sugar plantation in Tarlac, Luzong.
Meanwhile, Jose Maria Sison escapes from prison and fled to Ezo. This time though, he is now a changed man. He converted to SNORism, seeing Communism as a failure and failed to uplift the Filipino people. He then enters an Ezo University [the University of Sapporo to be exact] to learn about SNORism.
1968: The Anti-SNOR movement, composed of veterans of what was called the storm of '1966', swept across the country and demanded that the office of Panghulo be made non-royal. Meanwhile in Bornei, the DRB signs a Mutual Defense Pact with the CSDS and Bavaria. Millions of Borneian ringit [the peso is considered too 'Filipino'] of weapons and aid poured to this country. A Xrivijayan Communist leader, an ethnic Chinese named Chin Peng, enters Bornei, being wanted in his own country. His experience in guerrilla tactics, using his unofficial capacity as military adviser, made him popular with the Borneian regime despite his Xrivijayan origin. Eventually he gained citizenship.
1969: The Asemblea [Parliament] declared the office of Panghulo a non-royal and democratically elected office. Ramos resigns his position. Fernando Marcos and Fernando Lopez then competed in the election; Marcos, thanks to his populist policies and branding of the students as 'Borneian Communist plants', easily won the election as Panghulo; Lopez cried foul and pointed at the electoral fraud that was rampant.
A bomb is thrown at the Malacanang Palace, again. This time, no one was hurt. Many people suspect that it was the Communist Borneians who were at fault; however, it was a disgruntled cabinet minister named under Garcia who is behind the blast, as police investigation found out. He was given a kangaroo trial and shot.
1970: Rising oil prices forced the Filipinas economy to a standstill; another wave of riots, in the Mendiola area of Manila, caused 23 deaths, including 5 bystanders; press blamed it on heavy handed job of the Constabularia [the police]. Meanwhile a storm named Yoling ravaged in Luzong, the worst in Filipinas' history in terms of damage and casualties. Marcos declared a state of emergency in the Rajjao of Luzong, and eventually he secured relief from the FK and the North American League. However, some things are amiss; a third of the funds went missing.
1971: To silence fears that he pilfered the funds, Marcos decides to step down as Panghulo. There was also noticeable rift between Prime Minister Aquino and Marcos, as well as noticeable editorial attacks against Marcos by the Manila Inquisitor by Eugenio Lopez who was Fernando Lopez's brother.
A report by an NAL television station that Marcos' associates pilfered some of the funds caused panic in Malacanang. President Marcos blamed it on the Western media controlled by Communist interests. Angry, Marcos contemplated leaving the Western bloc and join the SNORist nations. Meanwhile, Sison returns to Filipinas under a pseudonym. This time, Marcos ordered the intelligence services to leave him alone, as he is no longer a communist.
1972: Nearly the entire Borneian leadership in Cota de Bornei were killed by a terror attack in a banquet. The surviving leadership, including Chin Peng [the new Defense Minister and eventually the President of the Democratic Republic of Bornei], blamed it on the Marcos regime in Manila.
Marcos, in turn, secretly contacted Moscow to help him from the 'degenerate Marxist-Brozist regime in Bornei'. After initial reluctance, Moscow agreed.
Meanwhile in Palanan, Provincia de Cagayan, a boat named Caragatan was seized. A weapons cache, some of them of CSDS make, but some with Russian arms, was found. The public press is speculating if Marcos is siding with SNORist Russia.
Disturbed by this, and fearing that Aquino will attempt to use this incident to accuse Marcos of making a false flag operation, Marcos makes a final decision. In September 21, Filipinas will become a SNORist country. Here he will build his Nueva Sociedad, the New Society.
SNORist Filipinas and the Bornei Filipinas War
September 21, 1972, Fernando Marcos declares Martial Law. All freedoms are curtailed in a state of emergency. Aquino was kicked out of his post, with Marcos again becoming Prime Minister, and arrested other leaders suspected or really in league with Aquino.
October 29, 1972, Marcos travels to Russia on a state visit. Here, he publicly declares his support of the SNOR. That infamous handshake with SNOR President Popovich was one of the iconic pictures of the SNORist Filipinas regime. This declaration disturbed other Southeast Asian neighbors.
November 6, 1972, in response to Marcos, Chin Peng's Bornei signs a new arms deal with the CSDS. More weapons poured into Bornei.
December 9, 1972, the Republic of Filipinas was declared as the SNORist Filipino State.
1973, the new SNORist constitution was set up. Marcos later declared himself Panghulo for life, and entrusting the post of Prime Minister to Juan Ponce Enrile, who survived an alleged ambush in 1972.
1974-1982, Marcos used a state-encouraged capitalism as his economic model. This was a part of his Nueva Sociedad. Eventual economic growth resulted, something unheard in SNORist nations. Unlike other SNORist states, Marcos' Filipinas traded with both the SNORist and Western blocs, despite Moscow's apprehension. Marcos claimed Filipinas needed to acquire vital Western technology in which the SNORist states especially Russia, could benefit. Communist insurgencies, abetted by the Democratic Republic of Bornei, flare up in Northern Luzong and Maguindanao. However, most enterprises that were seized by the government end up managed by Marcos' friends. The religious policy of Marcos was to cater to Isidoran Catholics and Borneian Christians like himself, as well as Eastern Orthodox Christians. However, all religious groups fear they are being used by Marcos to strengthen his regime. Ironically for a SNORist state, he instituted left-wing principles like expropriating the land from the "undeserving rich" [those aristocrats and Principalia who opposed Marcos] to the poor, and this approach was later adopted in other SNORist states so that their regime get popular support. Military strengthened by conscription and acquiring weapons from Russia, including chemical weapons, and these were used to destroy the rebels irrespective of the laws of war.
September 3, 1982, Benigno Aquino is released from prison, on the grounds that he needed an operation to fix his ailing heart in Japan [due to incarceration] and to go to Kanawiki to visit his family.
September 9, 1982, Aquino's airship, Nihon Airways airship Cocoro, was shot with an anti-airship portable missile at the Manila Aerodrome. Aquino and all other passengers die instantly. The government of Japan denounced this as terrorism. Government arrests Borneian agents suspected of blowing the missiles. An independent inquiry however at the Asemblea concluded that the make of the anti-airship missile was a Russian 9K32M Strela missile, and the Filipino army had a stockpile of that in its armed forces.
September 29, 1982, The Bornei Communist Party Central Committee had admitted that they had killed Aquino to shame Marcos.
September 30, 1982, In response, Marcos declares war on the Democratic Republic of Bornei.
October 5, 1982, Filipino warships bombard Sandacan, DRB. Use of P-6 naval bombardment missiles, the first recorded such attack in naval history, cause world indignation as they are loaded with Russian GB gas. 3,200 Borneian casualties are reported.
October 5-12, 1982, the DRB and the Filipinas naval forces clashed in the South China Sea. 45 Borneian and 15 Filipinas warships, mostly corvettes, were destroyed.
October 15, 1982, Borneian forces use chemical weapons dropped from Danubian-made fighters against Sulug. 230 civilians were killed.
October 17, 1982, the Chin Peng Offensive is conducted against Filipino forces in Sulug.
October 29, 1982, despite the heroic resistance of Filipino troops, Chin Peng's strategy, aided allegedly by Bavarian, Hunanese, and CSDS advisers, helped the Borneians nearly exterminate Filipinas troops in Bornei Island.
November 1, 1982, desparate for help, Marcos appealed for help from Russia.
November 2, 1982, Russia accepts plea of Marcos of troops, given that Russia itself is embroiled in the Moghul National Realm. Russia promised military supplies and troops, with orders from Porfiri Bogolyubov himself.
November 7, 1982, Bornei's government receives shipment of new weapons from the CSDS. Among them are 40 new jet fighters.
November 9, 1982, Vo Nguyen Giap, the former head of the Imperial Nam Viet Military Academy, offers his services to Marcos.
November 11, 1982, Borneian anti-aircraft artillery shot down an Air Nam Viet airship called the Trung Van. All passengers are killed.
November 12, 1982, Nam Viet's government declares war against Bornei and offers military assistance to Filipinas. Marcos agreed to do so.
November 15, 1982, Madzapahit's King allies itself with Filipinas in the Southeast Asian war.
November 16, 1982,In response, Malucan President Jose Martinez de Sonza, an Ecotopist-Communist, allies his own country to the Borneian cause.
November 21, 1982, Increasingly annoyed with the conflict occurring on its doorstep, Xrivizaja declares the Malaccan Straits closed to all Communist shipping. The right-wing government does not do the same with SNORist shipping (although it does send tentative warnings to Marcos's government), drawing the ire of Bornei.
November 27, 1982, a mass aeroplane raid by Borneian People's Air Force bombs the city of Batam in Xrivizaya with radiological dispersal weapons. 2,400 Xrivizajans die; 40,000 more are poisoned or afflicted by radiological cancers for decades to come. In response, Xrivizaja officially declares war on Bornei and joins on the side of Filipinas.
November 30, 1982, The 1st Malucan Corps entered the Malucan-Filipino border in the Province of Manado.
December 2, 1982, Poso bombed by Filipinas aeroplanes.
December 5, 1982, In response to the air raid at Poso, Malucan soldiers had the population of a village in Manado "cleansed".
December 13, 1982, Malucan troops enter Manado with heavy resistance. Female civilians and members of the Filipino military executed, and videos taken by Malucan soldiers and sent by middlemen to Filipino media as a warning.
December 15, 1982, The leaking of the Manado massacres were leaked to the Japanese media.
December 18, 1982, the League of Nations condemned the Malucan government for allowing the atrocities. Marcos vows that the Malucan leadership will "pay" sooner or later.
December 21, 1982, A powerful napalm bomb attack by Filipino airships destroy Malucan positions at Manado. Landing of Filipino marines conducted.
December 24, 1982, Manado city captured in time for Christmas. Ceasefire by Marcos declared, but ignored by Martinez de Sonza of Malucos.
December 28, 1982, The CSDS government had announced that they will send troops to Bornei and Malucos to aid them in their struggle against the SNORist regime of Marcos.
January 2, 1983, the first CSDS troops arrived in Sandacan, Bornei. Most of them are units from Bulgaria and Serbia. Unbeknownst to the Russians, the Danubians also had sent the stockpiles of radioactive weapons, ready at any time.
January 12, 1983, The Borneian Army was now placed under the CSDS' direction. This meant that the Borneian Army is all but in name a part of the Red Army.
February, 1983, The Merdeca Offensive. Danubian forces launched air raids against Filipino positions in Malucos and Bornei proper. The appearance of the dreaded Danubian Army had scared Marcos.
March, 1983, a nearly genocidal campaign by the Danubian and Borneian Armies in Bornei Island had cost the Filipino forces 34,200 lives and left 400,000 civilians dead. Worldwide condemnation ensued, but Franjo Tud'man of Danubia dismissed it as "reactionary babbling." By the end of March, Sulug is taken by the Danubian Army.
April 2, 1983, Bavaria had requested the Danubian authorities to oversee the operations and even join the war. Tud'man said that while the international situation does not permit Bavarian troops overseas, it does allow the Bavarians to become observers to the Borneians.
April 8, 1983, Vo Nguyen Giap, the Nam Viet adviser to the Borneian Army, was assassinated by agents of the Danubian trained Borneian People's Security Command.
April 27-May 9, 1983, "The Weeks of Hell." Danubian Army, along with their Borneian surrogates, had launched a surprise offensive in the former Rajjao of the Vizayas, Filipinas. The presence of the Danubians had scared Marcos again and said that the Danubians are the true colonial abusers, citing the Danubian administration of African territories. By May 9, only the Bicol provinces of the Rajjao are left.
May 12, 1983, Fernando Marcos requested the SNOR leadership in Russia to give him atomic bombs. The request is denied. However, the SNORist leadership promised to send aeroplanes loaded with atomic bombs.
May 24, 1983, Russian aeroplanes arrived in Manila. With all of the Vizayas (including the Bicol provinces) under Bornean and Danubian control, it is only a matter of time before they reach Manila.
May 30, 1983, Russian aeroplanes drop an atomic bomb against Bornean forces in Tayabas Province. International condemnation is quick.
June 1, 1983, The Danubians retaliated by dropping an atomic bomb against the Filipino-held Subic Naval Base.
June 3, 1983, alarmed, the League of Nations ordered both Danubian and Russian soldiers to withdraw. A few more bombs dropped, the League warned, would result in a Third Great War.
June 4, 1983, both the SNORist and CSDS leadership accepted the League's demand to withdraw. The brief confrontation between these two irreconciliable powers caused the populations in both countries to doubt their leadership, and historians generally believed the decline of both regimes was caused by the Bornei Filipinas war.
June 6, 1983, The League of Nations orders a ceasefire for both Bornean, Malucan, and Filipino forces. All of their leadership, tired of the war anyway, accepted. Bornean troops left Filipinas proper.
June 15, 1983, Fernando Marcos was forced to flee to Ezo due to mass protests in Manila. The protesters claimed he dragged the Filipino people into atomic war and turned himself into a SNORist pawn. Fabian Ver succeeded Marcos as Panghulo, but his regime would not last very long either. He did declare 'victory' in the war, claiming that the Borneians and the Danubians are running away anyway.
July 18, 1983, the Orthodox Christian population of Samar, Leyte, Biliran and Misamis declared independence as the State of Tandaya, a Snorist state unrecognized even by Russia. Their leader, Marcos' Orthodox brother-in-law and self-proclaimed "Tsar" Veniamin Cocoy Romualdez (formerly known as Benjamin Romualdez), claimed that his brother-in-law fled in cowardice against the "Bolshevik Danubians" and "agitators". Despite official lack of recognition, SNORist leader Bogolyubov tried to send arms to the Tendaya state.
August 1, 1983, Fabian Ver was overthrown in a coup by Juan Ponce Enrile and Fidel Ramos. They install the previous system, with Sacaziro Demc, the Rajjao of Palau, as the new Panghulo. Demc is opposed to SNORist rule and his family was heavily persecuted and met with Aquino's widow to serve as prime minister when the Enrile-Ramos dyarchy steps down next year, to crush the Tendaya secession.
January 1, 1984, Porfiri Bogolyubov was sacked as Russia's leader in a coup.
May 3, 1984, the anti-Communist revolution: the communist government of Bornei was overthrown by anti-communist guerrillas sponsored by Xrivizaya. The Maharajjao was reinstalled to his post.
January 5, 1984, the Russian government mediated the return of Tandaya State to Filipinas. It was renamed the Union of the Rajjaos of Tendaya-Butuan, after the ancient kingdom. Veniamin was crowned Tsar, but is officially classified as a Rajjao. As a result, both Enrile and Ramos stepped down. A period of reconstruction began.
Reunification of Bornei-Filipinas
2004: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was elected the Panghulo.