Government of the MR
- Serene Monastic Republic of the Holy Mountain shall be the official name of the sovereign nation and shall indicate the totality of the territory and the citizens of the sovereign nation.
- Monastic Republic shall be the shortened name of the sovereign nation.
- Mt. Athos shall indicate the name of the mountain at the end of the peninsula.
- Holy Mountain shall indicate the territory of the monasteries, access to which is prohibited to women.
- The Lowland shall indicate the plain between the Holy Mountain and the border of the Hellenic Empire.
- The Isles shall indicate the island of Amoulián and its adjacent isles which lie in Holy Mountain Bay to the west of the Lowland.
- Monk shall indicate the men who live in the monasteries of the Holy Mountain.
- Citizen shall indicate the men, women, and children of the laity who live in the Lowland and the Isles.
- People shall indicate the monks and citizens of the Monastic Republic.
- Sovereignty over the Serene Monastic Republic of the Monastic Republic is vested in the duly appointed Archimandrite.
- The Archimandrite is the Head of State and the Head of Government.
- As head of state and government, the Archimandrite possesses the executive power of the Republic and must answer to the Holy Synod who possess the legislative power.
- The Archimandrite is the Chairman of the Holy Synod of the Autocephalous Monastic Orthodox Church of the Holy Mountain.
- As Bishop of the Autocephalous Monastic Orthodox Church of the Holy Mountain, the Archimandrite governs as an autocrat to whom the Holy Synod act merely as advisors.
- The Archimandrite is appointed from the twelve Orthodox hegumens in a rotation determined by the order of precedence of the monasteries for a term of five years.
- Upon appointment the Archimandrite is sworn in at the Divine Liturgy in the presence of the other nineteen Hegumens and Abbots. At this Divine Liturgy he is consecrated bishop by his predecessor.
- The oath is administered to the new Archimandrite by the previous Archimandrite and witnessed by the signatures of the nineteen Hegumens and Abbots.
- Should the office of Archimandrite become vacant before the end of the term, the Hegumen next in the order of precedence is sworn in and begins his five-year term.
Order of Precedence
according to the Fourth Typikon, as amended:
ineligible to provide the archimandrite
- St. Athanasios
- St. John the Baptist
- Holy Cross
- Holy Archangels
- Sts. Peter and Paul
- St. Philotheus
- Presentation of Jesus
- St. George
- Forty Martyrs of Sebaste - Armenian
- St. George the Painter - Bulgarian
- St. John the Iberian - Georgian
- St. Sava - Serbian
- St. Panteleimon - Russian
- St. Nicholas - Cambrian
- St. Maroun - Maronite
- St. Thomas - Assyrian
List of Archimandrites
- 1870 - Demetrius of St. Athanasios
- 1875 - Paul of Annunciation
- 1880 - John I of St. John the Baptist
- 1885 - Stephen of Holy Cross
- 1890 - Basil of Transfiguration (first bishop)
- 1895 - Andrew of Holy Archangels
- 1900 - Alexander of Sts. Peter and Paul (dies of pneumonia 1902)
- 1902 - John II of St. Philotheus
- 1907 - Manual of Presentation
- 1912 - Joseph of St. George
- 1917 - Gregory of Theophany
- 1922 - Isidore of Ascension
- 1927 - Matthew of St. Athanasios
- 1932 - Jeremias of Annunciation
- 1937 - Metrophanes of St. John the Baptist
- 1942 - Cosmas I of Holy Cross
- 1947 - Cosmas II of Transfiguration
- 1952 - Gabriel of Holy Archangels
- 1957 - Methodius of Sts. Peter and Paul (killed in a fall 1961)
- 1961 - Maximus of St. Philotheus
- 1966 - Theophanes of Presentation of Jesus
- 1971 - Simeon of St. George
- 1976 - George of St. Theophany
- 1981 - Zosimus of Ascension
- 1986 - Ephrem of St. Athanasios
- 1991 - Gregory of Annunciation
- 1996 - Basil of St. John the Baptist (resigns in 2000 due to illness)
- 2000 - Theodore of Holy Cross
- 2005 - Nicephorus of Transfiguration
- 2010 - Loukas of Holy Archangels
- 2015 - Ignatius of Sts. Perer and Paul
The Holy Synod
- The Holy Synod is the legal organ representing all the People and represents and asserts the rights and interests of the People, and promotes the welfare of the Monastic Republic.
- The Holy Synod meets on the first Monday and Tuesday of each month to conduct their business.
- The Hegumens and Abbots are elected by universal, free, equal and direct suffrage of the monks in their respective monasteries for a five-year term.
- Candidates for the Holy Synod must be citizens of the Monastic Republic for at least five years, at least 35 years of age, and not deprived of their eligibility by reason of Law.
- Regular elections of the Hegumens and Abbots are held in November.
The Holy Council
- The twenty monasteries are grouped into four groups, five to a group.
- The Eastern group: St. Athanasius, Sts. Peter and Paul, St. Philotheus, St. John the Iberian, St. Nicholas
- The Northern group: Annunciation, St. George, St. Sava, Ascension, Transfiguration
- The Western group: St. John the Baptist, Presentation, Theophany, St. Thomas, Forty Martyrs
- The Center group: Holy Cross, St. Pantaleimon, St. George the Painter, Holy Archangels, St. Maroun
- The Holy Council consists of four monks, known as the protos elected for two-year terms by all the members of each group. They function as advisors and assistants to the Archimandrite.
- None of these protoi may come from the same monastery as the archimandrite.
- The four meet monthly with the Archimandrite to carry out the business of the Monastic Republic.
- One hegumen on the Holy Council is the Seneschal of the Monastic Republic and advises the Archimandrite on all matters economic and financial.
- One hegumen on the Holy Council is the Constable of the Monastic Republic and advises the Archimandrite on all matters of national security.
- One hegumen on the Holy Council is the Castellan of the Monastic Republic and advises the Archimandrite on all matters concerning the real property of the Monastic Republic.
- One hegumen on the Holy Council is the Healer of the Monastic Republic and advises the Archimandrite on all matters concerning the health and education of the Citizens.
The Lowland and the Isles
There are three towns, one village and one gendarmery post in the Monastic Republic.
- Towns (πoλ)
- Prosforion is on the bay side of the peninsula, close to the border of the Holy Mountain.
- Aktí is on the sea side of the peninsula.
- Amoulián is on the island of the same name. It can be reached by ferry from Prosforion.
- Village (χορί)
- Karyes, the capital, is on the Holy Mountain.
- Gendarmerie post
- Dafni is the port for the Holy Mountain, located on the bay side. The Holy Mountain is accessible only by ferry from Prosforion. A detachment of gendarmes is stationed there to monitor the entrance to and exit from the Holy Mountain.
There are four administrative districts, known as demes (διμ).
- The Holy Mountain itself.
- The island of Amoulián.
- The Lowland is divided into two districts by a line running down the center of the peninsula:
- Prosforion on the western shore.
- Aktí on the eastern shore.