First Balkan War
|This article is source material
|Name(s):||First Balkan War|
|Start of hostilities:||1868|
|End of hostilities:||1878?|
|Winning side:||Losing side:|
|Major consequences:||Independence of Hungary, Muntenia, Montenegro, Serbia, Dalmatian Hercegovina and the Monastic Republic from the Ottoman Empire.|
In 1868, twenty years into Fransesk Yosef's reign, the series of wars collectively known as the First Balkan War broke out. The Hungarians, who had been under Turkish rule since the mid 17th century, successfully threw off the Turkish yoke in the latter half of 1869. This was quickly followed by Muntenian independence in 1877, Montenegrin in 1883 and Bulgarian in 1893. In 1890, the old Dalmatian lands of Hercegovina and eastern Bosnia, which had been under Turkish domination, gained independence and the Kingdom of Dalmatian Hercegovina was established, with a member of the house of Aurial, Nikolu Aurialicz, becoming king. Nikolu's desire to liberate the Dalmatian lands under Austrian rule and to rebuild the ancient Dalmatian kingdom was widely known, and Dalmatians everywhere eventually grew to regard him as their true King.
At the end of the First Balkan War the map of the region changed considerably. The Ottoman Empire was almost completely expelled from Europe, having held on only to Greece. New independent states of Muntenia, Hungary, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Monastic Republic and Dalmatian Hercegovina emerged, and the Sicilian involvement in the war resulted in Albania becoming a protectorate of the Two Sicilies.
The First Balkan War began in 1868, twenty years into Fransesk Yosef's reign. In short order Hungary and the other Ottoman lands broke their chains. Hungary (1869), the Monastic Republic (1870), Muntenia (1877), Montenegro (1883), Bulgaria (1893) and most importantly, Dalmatian Hercegovina (1890) escaped Turkish domination. With newfound freedom, the House of Aurial was again brought to the throne and Dalmatian Hercegovina was established under Nikolu Aurialicz. Nikolus' wish to liberate and rebuild the Dalmatian kingdom was not hidden, and his antagonism to Austro-Dalmatia was not unknown. Most Dalmatians at this time came to regard him as their true king.
The Treaty of Constantinople of 1878, which was signed by the Ottoman Empire and Austro-Dalmatia, gave the Principality of Serbia, with the non-independent Ottoman province of Bosnia to Austro-Dalmatia, while the Rascia region (present-day Sanjak) remained within Turkey. Serbia, which was already fully independent by then, started a war with both Austro-Dalmatia and Ottoman Turkey. Serbian soldiers liberated Sanjak and proclaimed its reunion with Serbia. In 1882, Austro-Dalmatia and the Ottoman Empire finally conquered Serbian rebels, and Serbia lost its short-lived independence. The territory of the former Principality of Serbia was officially proclaimed the Serbian province within Austro-Dalmatia in May 1882, while Sanjak stayed within Ottoman Empire.
Throughout the 19th century, the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire was losing influence, status and territory and towards the end of the 19th century the people in the Balkan region began to demand the right to set up their own independent states ruled by people of their own nationality, culture and religion. Hungary had gained full independence from Turkey in 1869 and the desire of independence from Turkey was also spreading among the Romanians, leading to the establishment of the independent nation of Muntenia in 1877. The nation was declared a monarchy and its first king, Mihai I, was crowned on 27 June 1877.
From the Monastic Republic
On October 3-5, 1870, in an armed attack by the monks on Turkish soldiers, the monasteries gained their independence as the Serene Monastic Republic of the Holy Mountain, a permanently neutral, theocratic republic. His Imperial Majesty, Abd-ul Hamid II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the Holy Synod of the Monastic Republic, desiring to end amicably the state of armed tension between their respective nations and considering that the interests of the Monastic Republic were necessarily linked, by reason of its geographical situation, to those of the Ottoman Empire, decided to conclude a treaty (the Treaty of Karyes, October 11, 1870). In addition to acknowledging the sovereign territory of the Monastic Republic as it has existed since the time of the Byzantine Empire, the Government of His Imperial Majesty ceded to the Monastic Republic, as partial compensation, additional territory up to the town of Ierissos.