Currency of the Commonwealth of Nations

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The Commonwealth of Nations Currency Union is an extension of the various colonial and territorial monetary authorities that oversee local currency matters in the various territories of the Commonwealth. There is no Commonwealth central bank, as the various central banks of the principal countries are responsible for maintaining standards and issuing good currency in accordance with local currency laws. The Currency Union board membership is comprised of the following: Bank of the Federated Kingdoms, Bank of America (NAL), Pan-Caribbean Currency Board, Bank of Southern Africa, Currency Board of the Indo-British Colonial Union, Currency Board of Australasia and the Pacific Islands.

The Currency

All Commonwealth nations subscribe to the pound as the basic unit of currency. Each member nation's pound has the same value and is comprised of the same amount of precious metal. The Commonwealth defines its pound as 1840 grana of pure silver. Individual countries' central banks are responsible for design and emission of notes and coins, but the Commonwealth does impose a few guidelines on design. These guidelines are designed to increase recognisability and discourage the practice of discounting lesser known currencies when tendered for payment out of the home country, though not all member nations adhere to the guidelines.

The basic units are as follows in various languages of the Commonwealth:

1 llîr = 20 sollt =240 ceiniod Brithenig
1 livoers = 20 sols = 240 denars Kerno
1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence English
1 poond = 20 shullin = 240 pence Scots/Doric
1 libra =20 chilines = 720 soles Castilian*
1 pond = 20 schillings = 240 pence Afrikaans
1 tayel =20 ariary =240 peni Malagasi
1 pauna =20 herengi =240 kapa Maori
1 pa'aga =20 siligi =240 kopa Toga**
1 pund =20 skilling =240 penning Scandinavian
1 libra =20 sueldos =240 denaryos Ladino
*Also, 1 penique = 3 soles
**Toga also has further units-of-account above pa'anga, 1 hau = 4 koula = 64 pa'aga

Many divisions and multiples of these basic denominations are struck as coins or printed as notes. Furthermore, there is an ecu of £6, a guinea which is 21s, the mark which is 13s4d, the farthing which is 1/4 of a penny, the double which is 1/8 of a penny, the third farthing or grano which is 1/12 of a penny, and the smallest coin is the quarter farthing or 1/16 of a penny. Other odd denominations (historical and current) include the triple farthing, the penny-halfpenny, the groat (4d), the duronian shilling (8d), the gold helm (18d), the gold leopard (3s), the crown (5s), the gold florin (6s), and five sovereigns (£5). For the most part, the originals of these denominations were pre 1816 coins (before the great recoinage, and therefore no longer current); however, some of the names have survived or else there have been times when a country has issued commemoratives using these old names (especially the gold coins).

All coins must be of uniform size, weight and metal composition; notes should have the name of the issuing authority prominently across the top, should depict the shield or logo of that authority in the upper left corner, a large numeric value with appropriate currency symbol in the lower left corner, and somewhere in the middle must contain the Promise. The Promise is an interesting bit of numismatic history, and binds the issuing authority to make good on the notes it issues by paying out in silver or gold coin. The Promise has been little altered since 1694 when the Bank of England was founded: "I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of X pounds", and indicates that the bank note merely represents an amount of precious metal in the Bank's vaults.

Any valid banknote from any Commonwealth country may be redeemed at any bank in the Commonwealth without discount; though in practice, areas where coin is in short supply may not be physically able to honour the request. The bank of issue is always obligated to redeem any quantity of its own notes, and this may be accomplished at any chief office of the bank. Major central banks will redeem other Commonwealth nations' notes. Other (private) banks within a country (say Barclay's Bank in England) also redeem notes for coin, but are not under an obligation to do so. It is also a fact of commerce that notes from lesser known parts of the Commonwealth are sometimes accepted only at a discount with respect to local currency. This is particularly true in India and Africa.

Following is a list of the Commonwealth countries and the banking authorities responsible for their currency management.

  • Ascension Island: Royal Armed Forces
  • Australasia: Cambro-Irish Bank of Australasia
  • Cambrian Guyana: Royal Bank of Guyana
  • Cambrian Arctic Ocean Territory: Bank of the Unincorporated Territories; Bank of Kemr
  • Cambrian Indian Ocean Territory: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Cyprus: Royal Bank of Cyprus
  • Kingdom of the Society and Austral Islands (formerly Polynesi Gemruis / Cambrian Polynesia): Royal Bank of Polynesia
  • Cape Green: Royal Bank of Scotland, Government of Cape Green
  • East Caribbean Province: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Kingdom of England: Bank of England
  • Federated Kingdom: Federated Kingdom
  • English Guyana: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Kingdom of Fiji: Royal Bank of Fiji; Royal Cambro-Fijian Bank
  • Gibraltar: Government of Gibraltar
  • Goodyear Island: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Duchy of Grand Fenwick: Government of Grand Fenwick
  • Hong Kong: Government of Hong Kong; Royal Anglo-Chinese Bank; Hong Kong Shanghai Bank
  • Indo-British Union: Union Bank of India; Rajadoms of the Malabar Coast; Bank of Kemr
  • Kingdom of Kemr: Bank of Kemr; Provincial Bank of Dumnonia; Master of Lundy
  • Kingdom of Madagascar: Bank of Madagascar
  • Kingdom of Malta: Bank of Malta
  • Kingdom of Mauritius: Royal Bank of Mauritius
  • Kingdom of the Mosquito Coast: Royal Bank of Mosquito Coast
  • North American League: Bank of North America; Union Bank of Mueva Sefarad; Bank of Scotland; Bank of England; Bank of Kemr; Royal Scandinavian Bank of North America; Bank of Nunavik; Banco de America; First National Bank; Cherokee National Bank; Bank of the Unincorporated Territories
  • Dominion of Rhodesia: Bank of Rhodesia
  • The Salomon Islands: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Kingdom of Scotland: Royal Bank of Scotland; Clydesdale Bank
  • The Seychelles: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories; Government of Seychelles
  • Shetland Islands: Royal Bank of Scotland
  • Somer Islands: Bank of England; Government of the Somer Islands
  • Sultanate of Socotra: Government of the Sultanate of Socotra; Royal Armed Forces
  • South African Union: Union Bank of South Africa
  • Dominion of Southwest Africa: Union Bank of South Africa; Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • St. Andrew and Providence: Royal Bank of Mosquito Coast
  • Kingdom of Tahiti: Government of Tahiti
  • Saint Thomas and Prince: Bank of Kemr; Royal Armed Forces
  • Swan Islands: Bank of England; Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories
  • Tokelau: Republic of Tokelau; Proprietor of Lundy
  • Tortuga Islands: Master of Lundy
  • Kingdom of Wallace Cay: Royal Bank of Wallace Cay
  • West Caribbean Province: Currency Authority of the Office of Overseas Territories


Though many kinds of currency may be found in common use in the Federated Kingdoms, all coins are minted to the same standards of metal fineness and all are the same size and weight. Gold coins in the FK were 22kt (.916 fine) from 1805 until 1978, when a major economic downturn compelled the Mint to issue specially marked 15kt coins. In 1996, the FK returned to the 22kt standard. Silver coins were sterling, or 15 lode (.938 fine), until 1983 when the fineness was reduced to 13 lode, or .813. This was a result of the same downturn; but in the last decade or so of the 20th century, the economy has grown again and in 1992, silver coins were returned to 15 lode. It is not at all uncommon to find early 19th century coins in use in the 21st century. It's a little less common, but reports have been made of very old paper notes in general circulation as well. [See the Weights and Measures page for lodes and carats in precious metals.]

WRITING OUT VALUES When writing money values, there are three generally accepted forms that will work for any kind of currency in IB: one used when there are pounds, shillings and pence in the value, one where there are only pounds and shillings and one when only shillings and pence are in the value. The value of three pounds, two shillings and six pence is written thus: £3/2/6 with slashes dividing the numbers. The value of four pounds and six shillings is written thus: £4/6. The value of twelve shillings four and a half pence is written thus: 12/4½ or 12s4½. If there are no shillings or pence, a dash or series of dots is used to indicate the null value: £6/../3 means six pounds and three pence; -/4½ means four and a half pence. Either a plain capital "L" or "£", the pound sign, many be used to indicate pounds. Any amounts of money denominated in guineas or ecus are indicated by "G" or "E" in place of the "£". Thus, E2/14/- means two ecus and fourteen shillings; G2/- means two guineas even. The guinea, of course is 21/- and the ecu is £6/-.

In the Federated Kingdoms



The ecu is equal to six pounds. Kemr, the Province of Dunein and the Isle of Luydon make these denominations: one, half and third ecu. Note that Kemr only issues commemorative ecu coins. The ecus of Dunein and Luydon are all notes.

Guineas and Pounds

The guinea series is particular to England and are generally "circulating commemoratives" - coins that are intended for commerce, but are special in that they do homage to some famous person or historical event. They mint one, half, third, and sixth guineas. Kemr, England and Scotland all produce one, half and quarter pound coins. The guinea, of course, is worth one pound one shilling. Guineas are traditionally used when paying for the services of a physician or lawyer; when buying art or expensive motorcars; and when playing the ponies.

Lower value coins, denominated in shillings, are silver. Higher valued shillings are seen only rarely in commerce. The 1 shilling and 2 shilling and sixpence (2/6) pieces are most commonly seen.


Kemr, England and Scotland produce 10, 5, 2/6 (two shillings and six) and 1 shilling coins. The Province of Dunein produces 12, 6, 5, 3, 2/6 and 1 shilling coins. Luydon produces 12, 6, 3 and 1 shilling coins. The Islands of St. Martin (*here*, the Scillies) produce one shilling coins. Dunein and St. Martin shilling coins are somewhat rare. Both produce 1s notes in larger quantities.


The lowest value coins are pennies, some denominations are minted in silver, some in bronze.

In silver

Luydon and St. Martin produce 9 pence coins; the Province of Dunein produces 8 pence coins (called "Duronian shillings", after the old shilling of the kingdom of Deurow which was worth 8 Kemrese pence); England produces 4 and 2 pence coins as part of the Maundy sets; Kemr, England and Scotland produce 3 pence coins; and everyone (Kemr, England, Scotland, Dunein, Luydon, St. Martin produce 6 pence pieces.

In bronze

Kemr, England, Scotland, Dunein, Luydon and St. Martin all produce bronze pennies and half pennies. England, Scotland and Dunein produce farthings; Dunein is alone in producing half farthings. Third and quarter farthings were made for various colonies in the last two centuries, and these sometimes find their way to cash tills in Britain. Notable are Maltese and Indian issues.

In tin

There's no tin like St. Agnes tin! The area around St. Agnes in Dûnein, long famous for its tin mines and the quality of its tin, produces 7 pence pieces in tin, not silver.

Bank Notes

Bank notes are issued in ecus, pounds and shillings, (the latter being quite rare in everyday commerce except in Dunein). Only Dunein, Luydon and St. Martin Islands issue ecu notes. All three print E1 notes (six pounds). Luydon issues 2, 3 and 6 ecu notes. Luydon issued a very limited run of four E40000 notes, three of which are owned by the current Master of the island. That is indeed forty thousand ecus - or L240000 (approximately $2.5 million US dollars each!)

Pound notes are issued in a very large spread of denominations. Dunein is alone in issuing 1 pound notes. Kemr, England, Scotland and Dunein all issue five pound notes. Kemr, England and Scotland all issue 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 pound notes. Kemr, England, Scotland and the Federated Kingdoms all issue 1000 pound notes. Kemr and the FK issue 2000 pound notes. Kemr, England and the FK (but not Scotland) issue 5000 and 10000 pound notes. The FK is alone in issuing 20000, 50000 and 100000 pound notes. Notes issued by the Federated Kingdoms are seen extremely rarely seen in everyday commerce, as they are intended mostly for banking system transfers. L20000, L50000, L100000 notes and Treasury Certificates (all in excess of L500000) are never issued to the public through banks, as these are for the exclusive use of the banking system. One pound notes were issued from the beginnings of the Banks up to the late 1940s, when the series was discontinued due to German forgeries. The forgers' activities were mostly aimed at English issues, but general mistrust of all pound notes forced the discontinuance of the series. Old pound notes are sometimes still seen in circulation, especially in rural areas.

Shilling notes were last generally issued in the 1950s. Kemr, England, Dunein and Luydon all issued 5/- and 1/- notes during the Second Great War. Dunein and Luydon issued 20/- and 4/- notes in the 1950s. Dunein still issues 1s notes in quantity. Luydon shilling denominated notes were all withdrawn and cancelled due to German forgers' activities.

Who can issue money in the FK

There are several entities that have the authority to mint coins and issue paper currency. The Federated Kingdoms (via the Central Banks) have the authority to issue currency valued at L100 and above (they don't issue anything less than L1000, though) for internal banking and treasury uses and for international payments. Each of the constituent kingdoms (Kemr, Scotland and England) have national banks that issue currency and mints that produce and issue coinage. These are the Bank of Cambria, the Royal Bank of Scotland, the Clydesdale Bank (both for Scotland) and the Bank of England.

The Province of Dunein has traditionally asserted the right to issue currency and coin of its own (right definitively upheld in a Kemrese court early in the 20th century), which is done through the Provincial Bank (originally the Bank of Dûnein, though the bank was closed after poor management of the late 18th century). Businesses, banks and individuals within Dûnein may purchase a Charter from the Bank and must provide bullion in order to have their own coins struck (denominations are restricted to 1, 7 and 8 pence ostensibly in order to avoid confusing people with hundreds of varieties of 6 penny pieces). Most such Charters are sold to businesses in Esca or else eccentric individuals. The most famous (and long-lived) issues are the 7 penny pieces of the St. Agnes Stannaries (the mines closed long ago, but the Charter is renewed by the township) which bears the town's motto, "There's No Tin Like St. Agnes Tin" and have been minted since the 16th century; the Church of St. David in Esca also issues 7 penny pieces which it uses as special awards on feast days or at fairs and have been minted since 1714; and Constantine's Grocery (in the same family since 1466) which has issued "dragon pennies" since about 1512 (modern issues have varied legends like "I buy my bread at Constantines" or "Finest Quality Vegemite Since 1954").

The Master of Luydon wields all internal authority on the island, and that includes issuance of money. Luydon is the only known place where the money of a country is backed by the wealth of an individual.

Commemorative coins

There are many commemorative coins issued

by the three kingdoms, many of which are intended for circulation and are made in common denominations. Some commemoratives are made in special sets intended for collectors: like the Kemrese Coronation Set of 1967 which consists of a gold ecu and a silver 10/- piece, both of which are large and impressive coins. The ecu depicts the new Teruin or High King enthroned in majesty; while the ten shilling piece depicts him upon horseback in military dress. The reverse of both depict particularly stunning representations of the national symbol, the Dragon. Each year, the English mints produce Maundy Money sets, which contain silver coins in 1, 2, 3 and 4 penny denominations. The monarch distributes amounts of such money to certain common folk on Maunday Thursday. In England, the guineas are almost all commemoratives.

The Great Recoinage

Before 1805, Kemr, England and Scotland were three completely independant countries and each issued their own money. The relative valuations of each country's money also varied: more than eleven Scottish pounds were required to buy one English pound and the Kemrese and English pounds held similar value but seesawed back and forth. Within Kemr, several provinces issued coins and most notably Dunein, at which time all four of its underkingdoms issued currency that had different respective values. A shilling minted in Esca was worth 14 pence in the West, 16 pence in the East and was worth about 4 Kemrese pence. After the Acts of Federation in 1805, this wobbly state of affairs was brought to an end by making one money valuation in all three countries (except Dûnein, whose monetary system was a wreck at the time); though this didn't take effect until about 1810. At that time, the English pound was on top, equalling £1/1/9 (Kemrese) or £11/4/6 (Scottish). After 1810, the desperate need to reform the currency was felt, if for no other reason than to make it easier to transfer money across the newly opened borders. Thus in 1816 the Great Recoinage was undertaken. The value of the new money was taken as splitting the difference between the English and Kemrese pounds (the new FK pound would be worth £-/19/1.5 (English) or £1/-/10.5 (Kemrese). The Scots had to be content with paying the full £11/4/6. Needless to say, they were not pleased. Dunein currency was fixed at £24/18/4 to the FK pound. Also a bad deal, as the exchange rate had long been £24/15/- to the Kemrese pound. Needless to say, they were not pleased either. The Recoinage Act also provided for the revocation of all rights for any entity (except the national Banks) to issue gold coins and notes above one pound. This so infuriated the Dumnonians that the socalled "protest issues" of 20, 30, 40, 80 and 100 pound notes were quickly issued. The protest was short lived, however, as their right to issue high denomination notes was upheld and the notes were withdrawn.

The recoinage itself was fairly straightforward. A person would bring old coins in to a bank and they'd be sorted and weighed and paper banknotes of equal value given to the person in exchange. These interrim notes were exchanged for new coins once enough had been produced. Old banknotes could also be exchanged for new. With the exception of a few issues of notes that were heavily counterfeited during the Great War, none of the British kingdoms has ever demonetised any of its money - which is a matter of some pride amongst the British. Thus any old coins or banknotes (even pennies dating back to King Alfred) can still be exchanged at the bank for quivalent face value in current money; though they can't be spent in the shops. The Bank of Cambria boasts that it will even exchange Romano-British and imperial Roman coin dating back to the reign of the Emperor Claudius.-->


Main article: NAL Currency

There are, as in the home countries, several entities responsible for the emission of currency. All the coins minted for use in the NAL are the responsibility of the Royal Mint. Banknotes are issued chiefly by the Bank of North America (the NAL's central bank); but there are several other banks that may emit currency (not all do so all the time).


Over the years, many coin designs have been issued, but common themes have involved "national symbols" (like a shield with the Plough), eagles (both heraldic and in naturalistic flight), dragons, thistles, leeks, various heraldic devices, monarchical effigies (there are quite a few and there is undoubtedly some kind of arrangement to allow for equitable face time on American coinage), and allegorical representations of American principles like Liberty, Fraternity, America, etc (generally figures of a beautiful female persuasion, sometimes seated, sometimes standing or walking). Of all of those, the monarchs show up the least (probably because there are so many).

At present, "American wildlife" is the common theme. The farthings depict various birds; the halfpennies small mammals (beavers, coons, possums and the like); the pennies larger mammals. I like Marc's suggestion of a "common" side, something like the euro, but nowhere near as dreadfully hideous. Probably all the coppers have a common "national" symbols of some sort and the other side can vary somewhat as to animals depicted. The minor silver coins presently depict plantlife. The larger silver coins tend to be reserved for commemoratives of some sort. Gold coins tend to be reserved for heraldic symbology and commemorative issues.

One thing I would very much want to avoid is "provincial coinage" where each province issues its own, a la the dreaded euro. The NAL is a single country -- it just has a weird way of showing it.

As for the languages, coins don't have a whole lot of room on them, and I want to avoid the cluttered mess US coins suffer from. So I think that coin legends are probably _minimal_ in nature and written in English. At _most_ I think we're looking at "N.A.L.S.L.C." (on the smaller coins, written out on the larger ones), the date, the mint mark and a short (probably Franklinian) national motto. I like his "(Tempus) Fugio" and "Mind Your Business" that showed up on very early US coins. If a monarch should make an appearance on a coin, the name and title would appear in its proper language and title proper to the NAL.


Currency notes are a different matter. For one thing, there's a lot more space, so different languages can be showcased. I mentioned elsewhere that the currency board of the Commonwealth of Nations has guidelines regarding how notes should appear and what devices need to appear on them. Typically, the name of the issuing authority appears as a banner across the top of the note's face, any symbol of that authority appears near the upper left corner, in the lower left corner is a large numeric denomination and in the middle is the promissory text, serial numbers, signatures, etc. Other design devices are left up to the issuing authority's art department. Commonwealth bank notes are also pretty big. One pound notes are about 4x6 inches; 5 quid and up are in the neighbourhood of 5x7 or thereabouts.

The issue of language has never been either a sticking point nor entirely satisfactorily resolved to the satisfaction of everyone. Let's face it, the NAL is _too_ multilingual for _all_ languages to be represented. The solution has been, again, for English to appear on all American currency, and is the prominent language on Bank of North America notes. Some note issuing banks like the one in Mueva Sefarad (don't know the name) issue notes predominantly in Ladino, but with English subtitles. Kind of like what you see on Canadian notes, which are all bilingual, or maybe better, the old Anglo-Palestine notes that have Hebrew and English on em. Some languages, like Kerno and French and many Native languages, simply don't get a mention. But there are enough major languages like Castillian and Mohawk and Brithenig and Inuit that do so everyone is kept on their toes.

This is pretty close to a complete list of note issuing authorities:

  • Bank of North America
  • Banka Unyon de Mueva Sefarad (Union Bank of Mueva Sefarad), formerly Banka Nasyonal de Mueva Sefarad [before Unification]
  • Bank of Scotland
  • Bank of England
  • Bank of Kemr
  • Royal Scandinavian Bank of North America
  • Bank of Nunavik
  • Banco de America, formerly, Banco Central de las Floridas
  • First National Bank
  • Cherokee National Bank


Notes on Commonwealth Currency

Before November of 2002, the S.L.C. pound was worth about 18 FK shillings due to the fact that they became independant before the Great Recoinage in the FK in 1816. While the two currencies were connected, since the S.L.C. were a dominion of the FK, the values remained different. A referendum for the upcomming elections (2002) will call for the S.L.C. to revaluate its currency to the standard of the FK. See NAL Currency.

The various Commonwealth countries use FK equivalent £/s/d currencies. Most adhere to English or Brithenig customs for naming their denominations, but Ko Te Peeke o Aotearoa, the Bank of Aotearoa, prints it distinctive notes in the Native language. While the front of Aotearoan notes follows typical British tradition, the backs show different landscape scenes. Australasia illustrates its odd flora and fauna to good effect on each of its notes. Though Aotearoa is actually part of Australasia, they have a broad independence minded streak and have no trouble expressing this tendency toward doing things differently from their western neighbours in public ways.

The Kingdom of Fiji is one of many island groups in the Pacific Ocean. As a member of the Commonwealth, its currency is at par with the FK pound.

Notes on the History of Dumnonian Currency

The Province of Dunein has always and contines to maintain the right to emit its own currency, originally in the form of coins, but with the introduction of paper currency to the western world, in that medium as well. It has met not a little resistance from the national government and the central bank, but the Courts have consistently upheld the innate rights of the Province. Here follows a timeline of pertinent facts.

1692 First recognisable paper money of the Province were the bond or promissory note issue of St. Martin's, Esca, for the purposes of fundraising.
1696 Bank of Dumnonia founded (later to become the Provincial Bank)
1702-1780 Period of rampant inflation: Dumnonian pound plummets in value against the Kemrese and English pounds, reaching a low point of £103/6 to the Kemrese llifr. Parliament orders the Bank to shape up or be taken over by the national treasury.
1805 Act of Federation
1806 Inflation controlled; exchange rate improves to 30 Dumnonian pounds to the Kemrese.
1807 Act of Federation vetoed by the Dumnonian Senate.
1810 Monetary union between England, Scotland and Kemr is formed.
1815 Monetary Reform Act enacted: provides for a uniform currency valuation throughout the F.K.; local (independent) mints and currency issuing authorities are reorganised and prohibited from issuing gold coins or notes in excess of one pound.
1816 Dumnonian "protest issues" of twenty, thirty, forty, eighty and one hundred pound notes made.
The Great Recoinage: exchange of all old money for new (coined on more modern presses, rather than the old methods of steam presses or hammered dies. Old Dumnonian coins are exchanged at a rate of £24/15 to the new standard F.K. pound; all old coins and notes are recalled for destruction and recoining, though at least one vault full of old currency at Esca survived the exchange.
1866 Economic crisis in the Province prompted the issuance of more money. A vault full of old paper notes was discovered and accidentally released into circulation. The problem was not noticed until some months later when it was determined that, officially speaking, the pound notes were worth only 1/24 of a pound. The Senate enacted an emergency revaluation measure that revalued the old, devalued, notes, thus restoring to them their previous value.
1954 First year in history in which banknotes were printed in Kerno, rather than Brithenig. Series 1954 shilling notes have been printed sporadically since the mid-1950s without either a change of actual date or series.
1d, 3d and 6d notes are printed in Brithenig.
One pound notes are printed in Brithenig and Kerno.
1958 1d, 3d, 6d, 10/-, 20/- notes are withdrawn from circulation.

Two shillings sixpence.jpg

Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Issues

All are dated August 1.

     1d 3d 6d  1/- 2/6 5/- 10/- 20/-  £1 £5 £10 £20 £30 £40 £80 £100
1696            x                     x
1697            x                     x
1698            x                     x          x   x   x   x   x

1702            x                     x          x
1712            x                     x          x       x       x
1718            x                     x          x   x   x   x   x
1726            x                     x              "       "
1729            x                     x              "       "
1734            x                     x              "       "
1756            x                     x              "       "
1761            x                     x              "       "
1762            x                     x              "       "
1771            x                     x              "       "
1774            x                     x              "       "
1776            x                     x              "       "
1780            x                     x              "       "
1781            x                     x              "       "
1789            x                     x              "       "
1792            x                     x              "       "
1799            x                     x              "       "
1800            x                     x              "       "

     1d 3d 6d  1/- 2/6 5/- 10/- 20/-  £1 £5 £10 £20 £30 £40 £80 £100

1801            x                     x              "       "
1807            x                     x              "       "
1812            x                     x              "       "
1813            x                     x              "       "
1815            x                     x              "       "
1816            x                     x              "       "
1817            x   x   x    x    x
1818            x   x   x    x    x
1819            x   x   x    x    x
1820            x   x   x    x    x
1824                    x    x    x
1825                    x    x    x
1829                    x    x    x
1833                    x    x    x
1846                    x    x    x
1847                         x    x
1848                         x    x
1853                         x    x
1860                         x    x
1870                    x    x
1883                         x        x
1884                         x        x      x
1886                    x    x        x  x
1888                    x    x        x  x
1890            x            x        x  x
1891            x            x        x  x
1892            x            x        x  x
1893            x            x        x  x
1894            x            x        x  x
1895            x            x        x  x
1896            x            x        x  x
1897            x   x   x    x        x
1898            x   x   x    x        x
1899            x   x   x    x        x
1900    x       x   x   x    x        x

Twentieth Century Issues

1d 1-V-1914, 15, 16, 17; 1-V-1954
3d 1-V-1901, 02, 03; 1-V-1914, 15, 16, 17; 1-V-1949; 1-V-1954
6d 1-V-1902, 03; 1-V-1914, 15, 16, 17; 1-V-1949; 1-V-1954

1/- 1-VIIJ-1902; 1-VIIJ-1912, 14, 15, 16; 1-II-1920; 1-VIIJ-1920; 1-VIIJ-1923, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42; 1-II-1949; 1-VIIJ-1954; 1-VIIJ-2002
2/6 1-VIIJ-1914, 15, 16; 1-VIIJ-1936, 38, 42; 1-VIIJ-1954; 1-II-1959; 1-VIIJ-1966, 67, 68; 1-VIIJ-1974; 1-II-1992; 1-VIIJ-2002
4/- 1-VIIJ-1950, 52, 54
5/- 1-II-1976; 1-VIIJ-2002
10/- 1-VIIJ-1902; 1-VIIJ-1912, 14, 15, 16; 1-II-1920; 1-VIIJ-1920; 1-VIIJ-1923, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42; 1-II-1949; 1-VIIJ-1954
20/- 1-VIIJ-1954, 58; 1-VIIJ-2003

£1 1-VIIJ-1902; 1-II-1910 through 1916; 1-II-1920; 1-VIIJ-1920; 1-VIIJ-1923; 1-VIIJ-1936, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42; 1-VIIJ-1950, 52, 54, 58; 1-II-1976; 1-II-1992; 1-VIIJ-2001; 1-VIIJ-2002
£5 1-II-1910 through 1916; 1-II-1938, 40, 41, 42; 1-II-1992; 1-VIIJ-2001

E1 1-XI-1949; 1-XI-1954, 55, 56, 57; 1-XI-1967, 68, 69; 1-XI-1988; 1-VIIJ-2002
E2 1-XI-1949; 1-XI-1954
E10 1-XI-1949; 1-XI-1954
E20 1-XI-1949; 1-XI-1954

All notes were printed in Brithenig until 1955, after which all notes were printed in Kerno (except the 1958 20/- notes which were printed in Brithenig, and the 1958 £1 notes which were printed in Brithenig and Kerno).

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