Costanice

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     This page was copied from http://www.jaspax.com/lang/content/view/31/29/, and serves primarily as a notebook for it.     


Costanice is the language of Nea Illenicia, a country set in the alternate-history world of Ill Bethisad. The all-purpose source of information about Ill Bethisad is the Ill Bethisad wiki, which contains information about the dozens of different languages and projects going on in this shared alternate history. Read the wiki and you will hopefully understand.

Ill Bethisad is a playground for unlikely and unusual governments and societies, and Nea Illenicia is no exception. It is populated by refugees from Greece speaking a peculiarly evolved form of Greek, living in a socialist paradise in which the Greek Orthodox church is the state church. If this sounds odd, rest assured that it is not the strangest thing to ever happen in Ill Bethisad history. Or in our history, for that matter.

Anyway, browse through these articles to get an idea of what the Costanice language and Nea Illenicia have in store.

Contents

Costanice Language Evolution

(Original link)

It would appear that my Very Short History was so short that it caused a lot of confusion. Let me clarify: The idea is that Koine, after wiping out previous dialects and establishing itself as the lingua franca across the Eastern Roman Empire, began to split up into its own regional dialects after a short while, much like Vulgar Latin *here*. The dialects in mainland Greece took more or less the same development as Greek here, while those in Asia Minor went in a completely different direction that no real-world dialects took. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 was the event that sent the refugees packing off to Spain, but by that time they already spoke a language that was quite different from *here*s Medieval Greek, and already similar to Spanish in several important ways. In fact, I know very little about Byzantine Greek and only a little more about Modern Greek, but my starting point doesn't lie there--it lies in the Koine of the New Testament and Church Fathers.

In contemporary IB, Greece speaks a language more or less the same as *here*s Greek, but with pockets of Costanice-like dialect. The Costanico enclave in Spain has been assimilated, leaving Nea Illenicia as the main outpost of the formerly Asian dialects.

Some aspects of Costanice development before the relocation to Spain may seem unlikely because they too-coincidentally resemble Spanish changes, but that's okay with me.

To give a clearer idea of how Costanice evolved, here are the major changes (leaving out a lot of detail):

BY 500 AD

  • Early vowel changes: ai > e, oi > y, ei > e:,
  • Voiced stops spirantized
  • Probably also y > i
  • (*Here* we must add E: > i, but see discussion below)

BY 1000 AD

  • Tonal accent gives way to stress accent (unsure on timing, but must precede the next change)
  • Syncope of unstressed syllables where syllable structure permits
  • In unstressed syllables, intervocalic voiced spirants lost and intervocalic voiceless stops voiced
  • Final stress shifts to penult stress except in verb conjugation

BY 1453 AD

  • Palatalization of /k G x/ to [tS Z S] before front vowels
  • e, o > i, u in pre-tonic unstressed syllables; conversely i, u > e, o in post-tonic unstressed syllables
  • Loss of long vowels in stressed syllables: e: > i, E: > ie, o > uo (and later uo > ue)
  • Monophtongization of eu, au > o in closed syllables

TO PRESENT DAY These changes mimic changes in Spanish

  • Voice contrast lost on coronal spirants, so z, Z > s, S
  • S > x
  • Voiced stops spirantized intervocalically
  • lj > j` (orthographic |ll|)

Specific responses:

>> and set up a
>> community in Barcelona. From this point on the language was heavily
>> influence by Spanish.
> >But isn't this a _Catalonian_ speaking area?

Er, good point. Have to change that.

> > Pronunciation is basically as in Spanish. Voiced stops are spirantized
> > between vowels, /r/ is a trill, etc. /v/ is marginal--it only occurs
> > intervocalically, and for most speakers is [B], i.e. identical to
> > intervocalic /b/.
> > How do the /b/, /d/, /g/ series fit in? What is their origin? From the
> example of _zruebo_ below it, it suggests they developed from the voicing
> earlier /p/, /t/ and /k/ in certain environments. I notice /v/ is there,
> but what has happened to Byzantine /D/ and /G/ (from ancient delta & gamma)
> ? And what has happened to /z/ which has been part of the Greek phonemic
> inventory for more two thousand years?

In environments were voiceless stops were voiced, the voiced spirants were lost. /z/ was merged with /s/, as in Spanish.

> > /k/ and /g/ before front vowels become [tS] and [x] respectively. > > I understand the palatalization of /k/ before front vowels; it occurs in
> some modern dialects *here*. But why does /g/ apparently become a
> fricative instead of being palatalized? What happens *here* in those
> dialects that do palatalize is AFAIK:
> /k/ --> [tS]
> /x/ --> [S]
> /G/ --> [j]
> (The last is common to all dialects)

This is more or less the state of affairs in Costanice before the move to Spain; after that [Z] (palatalized /G/) merges with /S/, and both of them shift to /x/. So now /g/ alternates with [x], while /x/ doesn't alternate at all.

> > Unlike in Spanish, this actually creates alternations within a
> > paradigm: /igo/ > [iGo], /ige/ > [ixe]. (That's "house" in the
> > nominative and dative, respectively.)
> > So, Constanice has revived the ancient _oikos_ for "house" which *here*

Retained, not revived. Although my Greek dictionary does still contain _oikos_, though it may not be the most usual word.

> Sorry - I'm puzzled. Are you saying that in IB the ancient distinction
> between long and short vowels , which had disappeared *here* at least by
> the 4th cent CE, actually remained in Byzantine Greek till the 15th
> century? *Here* also |ei| had become a _monophthong_ before the 5th cen
> BCE, being, as far as we can tell, simple [e:] in Classical (Attic) Greek

Yes, the long vowel distinction does need to survive longer in pre-Costanice, something that I consider plausible. It doesn't survive to the 15th century, but it does survive a few centuries more... the chart I have above says "by 1000 AD", which should be plausible.

> (where eta was [E:]) before giving way sometime between the 4th & 3rd
> cents BCE to [i:].

Now *this* is new information. I knew that /E:/ eventually turned into /i/, but I believed this to be a later change. This requires me to revise. Let me think... if eta was /i:/ by the time of Koine, it will need to remain so. But i: > ie is still a plausible change, so that can remain, and all /i/'s, short and long, were lowered to /e/ in post-tonic syllables. So the only real change we need to make is to say that pre-tonic eta becomes /i/, not /e/. Which is fine with me--it's not all that common anyway. This can actually be explained, then, as a chain shift. Before the change, the long vowel system in Middle Costanice would be /i: e: o:/. /e:/ began to shift to /i:/, causing /i:/ to become /ie/. /o:/ then became /uo/ by analogy.

So now we have:

PRE TONIC POST
/i:/ i ie e (eta)
/e:/ e i e (epsilon-iota)
/e/ i e e (epsilon)
/o/ u o o (omicron)
/o:/ o ue o (omega)

The text will need to be updated, but not by too much.

> _zreubo_ is presumbly from Byzantine (and modern) /'anTropos/ - but why > the shift in stress from the initial syllable? The diphthongization of > stressed _Vulgar Latin_ /O/ had happened quite a few centuries before the > 15th.

I discuss this together with the question of stress below.

> > But some words add a different, lexically determined consonant, such > > as _huesga(r)_ which adds an /r/: > > Why /r/?

Etymology. Huesga(r) < ho:s gar.

> > Other forms drop the vowel. The 2pl verbal conjugation is among these: > > poyide tudo you (pl) do this > > poyíd arte? you (pl) do what? > > Note that the stress remains on the same syllable, so an accent mark > > has to be written in the forms lacking final /e/. > > I see the ancient _touto_ has survived - but what is origin of _arte_?

arte < a:ra ti.

> I may be mistaken, but it does seem to me that Constanice is basically > sound changes that happened to Vulgar Latin in Castilian Spanish to > ancient (not Byzantine) Greek pronounced (largely) in the Erasmian manner > (which would IMO give a very attractive result).

This is exactly what I set out to do. My starting point was Koine Greek, not ancient Attic, but otherwise this accurate. With some of this new information about Koine pronunciation I may have to revise some things.

> There were Greek colonies in Spain at a very early date - certainly by the > 6th cent BCE and possibly even earlier. Why not have Greeks moving from > the coast and setting up an enclave somewhere in the interior of the > Iberian peninsular (maybe, to flee from the growing power of the > Carthaginians) who would then have become isolated from developments over > in the Aegean area? This would account for a more conservative form of > Greek, preserving ancient forms which disappeared elsewhere. It would also > allow the changes similar to those that affected Vulgar Latin to affect > the development of Greek as spoken by these people.

This is an interesting idea, but it causes some problems in non-linguistic areas. Most importantly, if the Costanicos were in Spain they would certainly be Catholic, but I very much want them to be Greek Orthodox. Furthermore, the writing that I have done in IB regarding the Costanicos almost all presupposes that they fled from Byzantium. These could be adapted, but it risks upsetting the rule of QSS (quid scripsit scripsit).

This is food for thought.

> However - one point I feel I must mention. The form _zruebo_ seems to > derive fom the ghastly Henninian stress accentuation of ancient Greek (a > system *never* used by Greeks, either ancient or modern). It is due to a > 17th cent Dutch doctor of medicine, Heinrich Christian Henning (who > Latinized himself as 'Henninius'), who put forward the remarkable theory > that the accents printed on Greek texts had nothing to do with ancient > pronunciation and that ancient Greek was pronounced with the same stress > rules as Classical Latin.

Perish the thought! This is definitely *not* the motivation for _zruebo_. The reasons are much saner: the nominative was lost in favor of the accusative early on, and among the remaining members of the paradigm of /'anTro:pos/ all would have penult stress except the accusative singular. Thus, stress was leveled to the penult syllable, and thereafter the initial syllable was lost. Similar things happened with other nouns, which is why almost no nouns retain antepenult stress in Costanice--syncope or analogy has made them all penult-stressed. (More examples survive in the verbs, where stress was and is morphologically important.)

Costanice Grammar

Phonology

(Original link)

Costanice was originally conceived as "Castillian Greek", so its general pronunciation features are similar to those found in Castilian Spanish. There are some important differences, however, which are discussed below.

Consonants

The following table shows the consonantal phonemes in Costanice:

Labial Coronal Velar
p t k
b d g
f θ s x
v
m n
l r

Voiceless stops are unaspirated and pronounced very crisply.

Voiced stops are pronounced as stops only when initial or preceded by a nasal. In other positions, they are pronounced as spirants. Thus, /b d g/ become /β δ γ/.

The /v/ phoneme is very marginal. It only occurs intervocalically, and has a strong tendency to merge with /b/, which is [β] intervocalically. Many speakers pronounce /v/ as [β], thus merging it with /b/.

Before front vowels, /k/ and /g/ become [tʃ] and [x] respectively. Unlike in Spanish, this actually creates alternations within a paradigm: /igo/ > [iγo], /ige/ > [ixe].

Vowels

The only vowel phones are [i u e o a]. However, sometimes a vowel which is [e] in unstressed syllables becomes [je] in stressed syllables, and likewise [o] may become [we] when the stress falls upon it. Under the standard analysis these alternating vowels are actually separate phonemes, which are written in the orthography as {ê} and {ô}. We will continue using these symbols for convenience throughout this text. Therefore, we identify seven vowel phonemes: /i e ê a u o ô/, of which /ê/ and /ô/ alternate with [je] and [we] when stressed.

However, post-tonic syllables (those occurring after the main word stress) only three vowels contrast: [e o a]. The high vowels /i/ and /u/ are lowered to [e o] when they occur in this position. Stress is lexically and morphologically important, so this also creates alternations.

The following table illustrates some of the possible alternations:

Phonemic Phonetic Orthography
/e'dôga/ [e'δwe.γa] eduega
/dô'gono/ [do'γo.no] dôgono
/do'cis/ [do'tʃis] docís
/e'docis/ [e'δo.tʃes] edoces

Stress

Stress in Costanice may fall on any of the last three syllables. Its position is somewhat lexical and somewhat morphological.

Nouns and adjectives almost always have stress on the penultimate syllable, and never on the final syllable. A few words (most of them borrowings) have stress on the antepenult. Stress on nouns and adjectives is always fixed, and does not move in response to declension.

Verbs may have stress anywhere. On verbs, the position of the stress is almost always morphological, governed by rules of verb conjugation and the class that the verb belongs to. Thus, it is on verbs that we observe most of the stress-governed alternations discussed above.

Other parts of speech (prepositions, articles, etc.) are technically stressless. They generally behave as if they have post-tonic stress.

Liaison

Costanice abhors hiatus between vowels at word-boundaries, and always resolves it either through epenthesis or vowel-dropping. Thus, whenever a word that normally ends with a vowel precedes a word that begins with a vowel, something takes place to prevent the vowels from coalescing. This process is known as liason. For this process, the semivowels [j] and [w] are considered consonants. The process is lexical: some words add a consonant, others drop a vowel.

The most usual epenthetic consonant is /n/, which is used as the default for words that do not specify another consonant, which is most of them. E.g.: to zruebo, "the person"; ton igo, "the house".

However, some words add a different, lexically determined consonant. Huesga(r), for example, adds an /r/: Huesga sí, "because you (sg)..."; Huesgar imas, "because you (pl)..."

Other forms drop the vowel. The 2pl verbal conjugation is among these: poyide tudo, "you (pl) do this"; poyíd arte?, "you (pl) do what?" Note that the stress remains on the same syllable, so an accent mark has to be written in the forms lacking final /e/.

Some words alternate completely based on liason. Most propositions and the present conjugation of "to be" are this way. Thus "from" is either ap or po depending on whether or not the following word begins with a vowel: po tudos, "from this one"; ap otos,"from him".

For even more fun, these alternations can create a domino effect, since the pre-vocalic form of the prepositions and "to be" do themselves begin with a vowel. E.g.: Arte sti po tudos?, "What is from this one?"; Arten est ap otos?, "What is from him?"

There are a handful of vowel-final monosyllabic words that lose their only vowel when the following word begins with a vowel. In this case, the word simply becomes an onset for the following word. E.g.: ce tudo [tʃe'tuδo], "And this..."; ci' oto ['tʃoto], "And he..."

Spelling

Spelling is more or less as in Spanish, with the exceptions noted below.

The following letters are pronounced as in English: {f l m n p s t v}.

The voiced stops are spelled {b d g}, and pronounced as stops initially or after a nasal, and elsewhere as the corresponding fricatives.

The letter {c} is pronounced [k] before a back vowel (/a o u/) and [tʃ] before a front vowel (/e i/). The letter {g} similarly alternates, but it is pronounced [g] (or [γ]) before a back vowel and [x] before a front vowel.

The letter {h} is silent in all cases. When it occurs at the beginning of a word it indicates that the word, although being spelled with an initial vowel, does not cause the liason with the previous word. Other instances are purely idiosycratic or etymological, and even in word-initial position the letter is not strictly necessary because lack of liason can usually be inferred.

The letter {x} always spells [x]. The letter {z} always spells [θ].

In modern Costanice, the letter {y} and the digraph {ll} are both pronounced as [j]. The difference between them is purely etymological.

The vowels {i e a o u} are pronounced like the corresponding IPA symbols. The vowels {ê} and {ô} are pronounced just like /e/ and /o/--their spelling is etymological. When {i} or {u} occurs before another vowel, they represent [j] and [w] respectively, unless marked with an accent.

Stress is on the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable unless marked differently. When the stress falls on a syllable other than the penultimate, it is marked with an acute accent. Sometimes an acute accent is used on monosyllable words to distinguish homophones.

When liason causes the only vowel to be dropped from a monosyllabic word, an apostrophe is inserted in place of the vowel but the remaining consonant(s) are still written as a separate word. The word {ce} under liason is written as {ci'}.

Some examples:

Orthography Pronunciation
cada ['ka.δa]
docís [do'tʃis]
ébale ['e.βa.le]
sinergo [si'ner.γo]
erxome z' encé [er'xo.me θen'tʃe]

Nouns

(Original link)

Costanice retains a system of three cases and two numbers in nouns, although the system is heavily altered by sound change and analogy compared to the original Greek system. There are three genders and three classes of nouns, which are discussed in this article together with the definite article and some etymological information. The noun classes are numbered according to their traditional classification.

First Declension

The first declension in Costanice contains mostly feminine nouns, with a handful of irregular masculine nouns added in. The regular feminine noun sixe "soul" has the following declension:

Nom || te sixe || tas sixas
Singular Plural
Gen tes sixes to sixo
Dat te sixe tes sixes

As you can see, the stem of this word is six-, and the final vowel varies according to case and number. There is quite a bit of homophony between different members of the declension, mostly due to phonological leveling. A masculine noun in this declension would have exactly the same endings. All of the endings in this declension that do not end in /s/ take /n/ as an epenthetic consonant under liason.

ETYMOLOGY: The first declension has suffered the least from analogical leveling. The sound changes leading to the declension above are quite simple: loss of final /-n/, loss of vowel length distinctions, and the leveling of /-ai/ to /-e/. The only other thing that needs to be noted is the loss of a distinct accusative case as the historical nominative fell out of use, and the accusative rose to take its place. Throughout the remaining declensions the exact same loss of the nominative has taken place.

Second Declension

The second declension contains mostly masculine and neuter nouns, with a handful of feminine nouns. A typical masculine noun is cirio, "Lord, sir, mister."

Singular Plural
Nom to cirio tos cirios
Gen to cirios to cirio
Dat te cirie tes ciries

Once again, all of the nouns in this declension add /-n/ to the forms that end in a vowel under liasion. A feminine noun in this declension has the same endings, but uses the feminine article illustrated above.

ETYMOLOGY: The nominative forms are regular developments from the old Greek accusatives in both the article and the noun ending. The genitive plural is likewise regular (though it has become homophonous with the nominative singular), but the ending of the noun in the genitive singular has acquired an /-s/ through analogy with the first and third declensions. The masculine genitive singular article, however, has not been modified by analogy. Thus the genitive singular and nominative plural are indistinguishable by the form of the noun alone, but are distinct when taken together with the article. In the dative, the plural ending /-es/ is a regular development of /-ois/ (by means of /-ys/, then /-is/), but the singular ending has become /-e/ by analogy with the other two declensions. (And because the regular outcome would have been /-o/, which was evidently too much homophony even for the Costanicos.)

A typical neuter noun in this declension is prosuebo, "face, person."

Singular Plural
Nom t(o) prosueb(o) t(a) prosueb(a)
Gen to cirios to cirio
Dat te cirie tes ciries

As you can see, this declension is identical in every way to the masculine declension except for the nominative plural, which takes /-a/ in place of /-os/. However, under liason neuter nouns in the nominative do not add /-n/, but rather lose their final vowel.

ETYMOLOGY: In general vowels that are lost under liason represent original short final vowels. Thus it is expected that the final /-a/ of the neuter noun declension would disappear under liason, but unexpected that the neuter noun ending /-o/ would also be lost, since it descends from original /-on/. Here the liason form appears to be based on the article, which was /to/ even in Greek, and thus susceptible to liason. It may also be based on the liason of neuter nouns in the third declension. This noun class has also absorbed original 3rd-declension neuter nouns of the genos type.

Third Declension

The third declension contains masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns, and is the largest declension. A typical third declension noun is nita, "night" (a feminine noun).

Singular Plural
Nom te nita tas nitas
Gen tes nitos to nito
Dat te nite tes nites

As with the other declensions, these forms that end in vowels all add /-n/ under liason. These endings are only for masculine and feminine nouns--neuter nouns use a different system which is described below.

ETYMOLOGY: In Costanice, the third declension has absorbed a great many nouns that did not originally belong to it, such as feminine nouns ending in short /a/ and those nouns that in Koine end in /a/ because the previous letter is /r/, /i/, or /e/. These nouns have in turn exerted analogical influence on the rest of the paradigm. Thus, the nom. sg. ending /-a/ adds /-n/ under liason, rather than disappearing, and the dat. pl. ending is /-es/ rather than some reflex of Koine /-si(n)/. (The original dat. pl. ending was also abandoned because it wrought havoc on the stems of nouns it as attached to.)

The neuter nouns have the same underlying declension, but they add to their stem in all forms of the paradigm except the nom. sg. A typical such noun is xriema, "thing, goods.":

Singular Plural
Nom t(o) xriem(a) t(a) xriémad(a)
Gen to xriémados to xriémado
Dat te xriémade tes xriémades

ETYMOLOGY: The etymology of these nouns should be pretty clear. Some neuter nouns that were not originally declined with /-ma(t)/ in Greek were drawn into this class by analogy.

There is a subclass of masculine and feminine nouns in the third declension which has a few peculiarities--namely, stress regularly on the antepenult syllable and a few peculiarities of the endings. For example, pólea, "city".

Singular Plural
Nom te pólea tas póleas
Gen tes póleos to póleo
Dat te pole tes poles

ETYMOLOGY: This class now contains both original polis-type nouns and basileus-type nouns. The endings of these nouns were similar in any case, and analogy eliminated the differences and fused these two groups.

Ton Evangello cada Marco (The Gospel According to Mark)

(Original link)

Ten arxe ton evangellos to Iesus Xristos Íos to Zeos: Zues sti grásanon en ten Êseye profiede: "Eú, postelo to mú angelo pro to sú prosuebo, tudon o cadastévase te sú odo Fuene to cleyontos en ten erieme, "Etimaste ten odon to cirios, poyéd ozíos tos tú caminos. Gento to Ioane batísonton en ten erieme ce cêrísonto to batisma tes medanías ês afiese ton amartío ce esepórevo te pros oto pasa te Iudeya xuera ce pantas tos Ierosolimides, ce ebátiso te ap otos en te rie Iordane, tudos esomblogunos tas oto amartías. Ce hié to Ioanen bestunta den en trixes to camielos ce suene dermatine pri te tú cinture, ce zíonta acrias ce mele agrie. Cen ecêrise tudo léyonta, "Erxe de ton ísxiro malo mú empiso mú, tudon os ton imanta to podiémado ox em ignon o liso baxuenta me. Yo ebátisan imas en ten ite, lan oto batisen imas en te nómade aye. Ce gento en cíntestes hiembres on hielze to Iesu po Nasarez tes Galileyes, ci' ebátise den ês to Iordano po Ioanos. Cen ozo tudo nabénonto esó ton itos éblese tos urnos sxísonos ce to Noma cadabénonton ês oto hués pristere. Ce gento fuenen esó ton urnos léyonte, "Sín is ton io to mún aipieto. En sé cues pienso me." Cen ozo to Noma balen oton esón ês ten erieme. Ce hién en ten erieme tesrágonta to hiembro, tudo pêrasono po to Satanos. Ce hién meda to zierio, ce tos angelos oto esirbo. Medan o preduege de to Ioane, hiélze to Iesu ês te Galileya tudo cêrisonta to evangello to Zeos, ce leyontan o "Plêriésano sti to cero ci' engísano sti te baslicia to Zeos. Medanoyede ce pistode en ten evangelle. Ce prabénonto pra ta zalsa tes Galileyes éblese to Símona ce ton Andrea ton alfo to Símonos tudos brêxásontos huesga hió pêscadoros. Cen élesen otes to Iesu, "Ben empiso mú, ce poyeson imas o siede pêscadoros ton ánzropo. Cen ozon afientas tas brexas êgluzo ote. Ce proselzonta pocon éblese to Iguebo ta Sebedeyos ce Ioano ton otos alfo, ce tudon en te plíe pistevásontas tas brexas ci' oton ecalsen otos. Cen tudos afientas ton oto patra Sebedeyo en te plíe meda to mizueto apielzo empison otos. Cen êsepórevon ês Cafárnoma, ci' ozo tes sabades oton êsélzanta ês te singuege edíaste. Cen emarabillo pi ten tú diaxe, huesga hié tudo diásconta zues esusian exonta ci' oxi zues tos gramáteas. Cen ozo hién en ten oto singuege zruebon en nómade azarte, ci' anécrase tudo leyonta, "Arte sti hiemes ce sí, Iesu Nasarieno? Hielzas o hiemas polses? Nosco tisten is, ton ayo to Zeos." Ce ton Iesun oton epetimiese leyonta, "Calla ci' eselzen esón otos. Ce ton azarto noman oton éspasen ci' efônísanta fuene meile tudo esielzen esón otos. Cen ezómaso tos pantas, hueson esêtieso te pros otos leyontas, "Tiste sti tudo? Diaxe cene cad esusia, ce tes nómades azartes pitase, ce tudos ote ipacuos. Cen esielze ten tú faman ozo êspán ês ole te prixuera tes Galileyes. Cen ozon esó tes singueges esélzantas hielzo tudos ês ten ige to Símonos ce ton Andreos medda to Iguebos ce to Ioanos. Ce te penzra to Símonos cadeci de tude februenta, ci' ozo leyos ote prin otes. Ce tudo prosélzanta egiren ote levuenta tes otes xiros, ci' êfiege den otes te febra ci' esirben otes. Noce gento, oda cadielzen to hiello, éferos pros oto pantas tos enfermos ce tos demonisonos ce hié pisinonta ole te pólea pros te zira. Cen ezrápose polos enfermos esón diverso noso, ce pola demonia esébale, ci' ox elase o laliesos ta demonia, huesgar esabon oto. Ce maniane scode éxonte nastanta esielze ci' apielze ês eriemo tobo ci' encí prosuexe de. Ce cadedíogen oto Símona ce tos medan otos, ce hueron odo ce leyos oden o "Pantas sêtús se." Ce leye otes, "On élzome enale ês tas póleas contas ontas o ci' encí cêriso. Huesgar ês tudo esielza." Ce hielze cêrisonta ês tas oto singueges, ês ole te Galileya ci' esébalen ta demonia. Cen erxe de pros oto lepro pracaluntan oto ce gonoroguentan oto ce leyontan oten on, "Ya zeles dina sen o me cazrises." Ce cinon itíronta etínanta te tú xira sincinen oto ce leyen oten o "Zelo, ste cazrísanto." Cen ozo apielze pon otos te lepra, ci' ecázrise de. Ce cino embrísontan oton ozon esébalen oto ce leyen ote, "Ora mên udene udé leyes, la baya, dise se te hiere ce prosenge pri to sú cazrismos tudan a prosétase to Moise, ês martirion otes." Tudon esélzanta hierxe den o cêrise pola ci' efámisen to loyo, hueste mê dina de cinon enolges o fandra êselze ês pólea, lan esón ep eriemes tobes hié. Cen ébeno pros oto pantoze.

Cen êsélzanta tudo pálende ês Cafárnoma en xrone hiembron écuse den on en ige sti, ce sinielzo polos huesten mên enolges sie spazio miede tuda pros te zira, ci' elalen otes to loyo. Cen erxo te férontas pros odo pralidico eruno po tesra zruebo. Cen oxe dina te mê prosengo oto cine po ton oxlos, apestégaso te stege encí pu hié, ce roturuentas xalêmuenos to crábadon ep os caze de to pralidico. Cen oruenta Iesu ten oto pístea leye te pralidice, "Hixo, afiéganas estos tas sú amartías. Hió tinas to gramáteo encí cazientas, ce dialogisonos en tes oto cardies, "Diate tudo hues lalé? Blasfêmé. Tiste dina de on afiegen amartías ya mê to Zeo?" Cen ozo penuéganta to Iesu te tú nomaden o tudos dialogisonos en otes, leye otes, "Diate tuda dialogiste zen en tes imo cardies? Arte sti malon oglo; o leso te pralidice "Afiéganos estos tas sú amartías," hien o leso "Gire ce aro to crábado ce pripate"? Huest o nued on esusian exe ton ío ton ánzropos on afiege amartías pe tes ges," leye te pralidice, "Se leyo, gire, aro to sú crábado ci' elzon ês to sún igo." Cen égire ci' ozon áranta to crábado esielzen emproze panto, huesten o marabillo pantas ci' o dosaso to Zeo leyontas o "Hues milagro mêpode blebme." Ci' esielzen empale pra te zalsa. Ce panta ton oxlon ébene pros oto, ci' ediasten otos. Ce prabálonta tudon éblebe Leve ton ío ton Alfeyos, cázonta pe te casa ton impuesto, ce leyen ote, "Agluze me." Ce nastégonta den êcluse den ote. Ce genton oton o cadece ten en ten otos ige, ce polos teluenos cen amartuelos sinanece sin te Iese ce tes mazietes. Huesga hió polos ci' êgluzon ote. Ce tos gramáteas to Fariseyo blésantas on truese éleyo tes tú mazietes, "O meda ton amartuelo ce to telueno trueye! Ce cuonta to Iesu leyen otes, "Ox exos nance tos isxiros to yatros, la tos enfermos. Oxe hielzon o clieso tos diceyos, ta tos amartuelos. Ce hió tos mazietas to Ioanos ce to Fariseyo nêstévontas. Cen eserxo te ce leyos ote, "Diate tos mazietas to Fariseyo nêstevos, te tos sú mazietas oxi nêstevos?" Cen élese otes to Iesu, "Mê dinieso te tos íos to nimfuenos o nêstoson oda en e to nimfio medan oto sti? En tose xronen exos to nimfio med oton oxe dina ten o nêstoso.

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