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Catholicos is the common title of the Patriarch of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the head of the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East and nominal head of all of the Churches of the East.

The Patriarchs of Seleucia-Ctesiphon trace their apostolic succession back to Mar Toma the Apostle, as well as the Apostle Mar Tulmai and Mar Addai and Mar Mari, members of the 72 Lesser Apostles.

The title of Catholicos has been used by the Patriarch of Seleucia-Ctesiphon since the metropolitan of that city was declared the head of all the bishops in the Persian Empire and equal to the Sees of Rome, Constantinople and Alexandria. "Catholicos" is derived from the Greek word καθóλικος, meaning "universal" or "pertaining to the whole", i.e., "head of all the bishops".


Patriarchs of Seleucia-Ctesiphon

I Century

Mar Tulmai c.33
  • Mar Addai
  • Mar Aggai c.66-c.87
  • Mar Mari c.87-c.120

II Century

  • Mar Abres I c.121-c.137
Solatubnaia c.137-c.159
  • Mar Abraham (Oraham) I c.159-c.171
  • Mar Yaqub I c.171-c.190

VI Century

  • Mar Yeshuyab I 581-596
  • Mar Sabriyeshu I 596-604

VII Century

  • Mar Gregorius I 604-609
  • Mar Babai I the Great 609-633
  • Mar Sabiryeshu (Sabrisho) II 633-644
  • Mar Hananiyeshu (Qnanisho) I 685-700

VIII Century

  • Mar Timothy I 797-823

XI Century

  • Mar Makkikha II 1092-1100

XII Century

  • Mar Eliya II 1100-1132
  • Mar Gewargis III 1133-1140

XIII Century

  • Mar Yaballaha III 1245-1271 - First Turkic Catholicos
  • Mar Sargis VI 1271-1274
  • Mar Abdiyeshu IV 1274-1290
  • Mar Gregorius II 1292-1334

XIV Century

  • Mar Mertas II 1367-1398
  • Mar Bardaysan I 1398-1401 - Martyred by Timür

XV Century

  • Mar Bardaysan II 1401-1412
  • Mar Shimun II 1412-1428
  • Mar Mertas III 1428-1443 - Granted independence to the Religion of Light Church

XX Century

See Also:

Wikipedia:List of Patriarchs of Babylon

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