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Japanese cana has been adapted to several languages in territories once ruled by the Japanese Empire



The phonology of Kanawikian is well-suited for cana, with the exception of the glottal stop. The solution was to write pure vowels with the w-row (/u/ = wo-little u), and glottal-stop initial syllables with the pure vowels. /w/ is written with u followed by little vowel kana.
a i u e o = ワ ヰ ヲゥ ヱ ヲ
'a 'i 'u 'e 'o = ア イ ウ エ オ
wa wi wu we wo = ウァ ウィ ウゥ ウェ ウォ
Long vowels are written with the length mark, i.e., kaa = カー

  • Hawai'i = ハウァヰイ
  • O'ahu = ヲアフ
  • Maui = マヲゥヰ
  • Laana'i = ラーナイ
  • Kaua'i = カヲゥワイ


I-Kiripati, the language of the Kingdom of Kiripati, in the Micronesian Confederation, is also written with catacana. Ikiripati has no glottal stop, and so there was no need to co-opt the w-row. Ikiripati did, however, have other problems in canafication, namely, the syllabic nasals, the contrast between syllable-final nasals, and the labialized consonants.
The consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, /r/ are written as expected /pw/ is written with pu + w-row
pwa pwi pwu pwe pwo = プァ プィ プゥ プェ プォ
/mw/ follows the same pattern
/Bw/ is written with the b-row.
Nasals are a bit more complicated.
The velar nasal is written with the g-row, m and n mostly as expected except:
Gu, mu, nu by themselves represent ng, m, n (coda or syllabic)
-mw is written mu little wa - ムヮ
/Nu/, /mu/, /nu/ are written with gu, mu, nu followed by little u - グゥ ムゥ ヌゥ
Like Kanawikian, I-Kiribati uses the long mark for long vowels.


Pònpeian, spoken in Pònpei, Micronesian Confederation is written with catacana in a system similar to I-Kiripati.
Syllable-final consonants are showed with u-row consonants, little u being used for actual syllables.
Pònpeian has six of seven (depending on dialect) vowels:
/i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, /u/ written as expected
/E/ and /O/ uses little a after the syllable
Long vowels written with long mark
/t/ and /t,/ distinguished by {d} and {t} respectively (convention also held in romanization)
/N/ written with {g}
/mw/ written as in I-Kiribati
/pw/ is written with {b}
/l/ is written with katakana, /r/ with hiragana
/m/, /n/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /w/ written with expected kana


Togan used the same method as Kanawikian for the glottal stop. The cana orthography is now obsolete, roman letters having replaced it.
/v/ is written with the b-row
/l/ is written with the r-row
/N/ is written with the g-row
/h/ is written with the h-row
/f/ is written with the s-row (chosen to avoid requiring hiragana, special diacritics, or too-frequent use of little kana.)
p, t, k, m, n written as expected.

Arero Henua

Japan established an official Catacana for Henua soon after creating the protectorate (1876). It follows the basic pattern used for Kanawikian and Togan. See also Henua transliterations.
Syllables beginning with /h/, /k/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, and /t/ use the regular corresponding rows of the Cana table.
/v/ uses the b-row.
/N/ uses the g-row.
Glottal stop syllables are written with the pure vowel cana, while pure vowels are written with the w-row. This is the same system used for Kanawikian.

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