Burundi

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Kingdom of Burundi
Ubgami y'Uburundi
Flag CoA
Flag CoA
200px
Map
Motto
National Anthem
Cities
Capital Usumbura
Coordinates latitude: 3°21'41"S
longitude: 29°20'52"E
Other Cities
Government constitutional monarchy
Head of State Mwami Charles
Head of Government
Demonym Burundians
Independence July 1, 1985
Area 27,834 km²
10,747 mi²
Population ~10,000,000 (2015)
Ethnicities - Citizens Hutu 85%
Tutsi 14%
Twa 1%
Languages
Official Kirundi
Other Swahili
Religions
Official Roman Catholicism (92%)
Others Native (8%)
Currency 1 Burundian pound (B£) = 20 shillings (d) = 240 pence (p)
ICSC Code]] UBU
Time zone UTC +2
Telephone Code 566-
Registration
Aviation UBU nn
Marine UBU nn
Amateur radio UBU nn
Radio prefix UBU
Organizations League of Nations
EATO
Sports
Official
Other

Contents

History

  • Text in bold print is PoD.
  • The origin of the Kingdom of Burundi is lost in legend. The state known as Burundi emerges into history in the 16th century, occupying the foothills on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika, when the Chinese, having established themselves in East Africa two centuries earlier, set up trading posts. Their control of the country, so far from their stronghold on the Swahili Coast, was loose and, in the following centuries, under the leadership of the Tutsi people, the kingdom expanded, annexing smaller neighbors and competing with Rwanda. Its greatest growth occurred under Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba, (1796-1850) and saw the kingdom double in size.
  • The kingdom was ruled by a king, the mwami, and an aristocracy, the ganwa, who owned most of the land and exacted a tax from the farmers and herders. These in turn, traded their produce, principally coffee, to the Chinese in exchange for manufactured goods.
  • When the Chinese lost their possessions in East Africa, as a result of their defeat in the Great Oriental War in 1952, the nations of East Africa gradually asserted their sovereignty. The Chinese retained their foothold in Burundi for two more decades, allowing the kings to rule nominally.
  • Instigated by the Chinese, starting in 1963, the Burundians raid the Kongo for some ten years causing the Kongo to seek assistance form the Confederation of Soviet Danubian States in 1973.
  • In 1984 a border treaty was signed by Kongo and CEA, but it was too late. The Burundians revolted against the Chinese. There was much bloodshed as the people began to slaughter the Chinese and their sympathizers, many of whom fled eastward into the recently independent Tanganyika.
  • By this time Mwami Mwambutsu IV (1915-5/1/66) had abdicated and been succeeded by his son Ntare V, who asked for and received help from Tanganyika to quell the rioting. He asserted the traditional hereditary monarchy, but died in a motor vehicle accident in 1972, never having married.
  • He was succeeded by his nephew Charles who was, at the time, a minor. His mother Rosa, the sister of Ntare V served as regent for two years until Charles attained his majority in 1974. In 1986 he promulgated a constitution which established a democratic hereditary monarchy for the kingdom. He is currently the mwami of Burundi.

Timeline

  • 1952 - End of Great Oriental War
  • 1963 - Raids on Kongo begin
  • 1966 - Mwambutsu IV abdicates on May 1st
  • 1972 - Ntare V dies on April 2nd
  • 1972-4 - Regency under Ntare V's sister Rosa
  • 1973 - The Confederation of Soviet Danubian States assists Kongo
  • 1974 - Charles attains majority on July 17th
  • 1984 - Border Treaty signed between Kongo and CEA
  • 1985 - Independence is declared on July 1st
  • 1986 - Constitution is promulgated on July 1st

List of Mwamis

  • Ntare I Rushatsi Cambarantama: c.1510–c.1520
  • Mwezi I Baridamunka: c.1520–c.1550
  • Mutaga I Mutabazi: c.1550–c.1570
  • Mwambutsa I Nkomati: c.1570–c.1590
  • Ntare II Kibogora: c.1590–c.1630
  • Mwezi II Nyaburunga: c.1630–c.1660
  • Mutaga II Senyamwiza Mutamo: c.1660–c.1640
  • Mwambutsa II Nyarushamba: c.1640–c.1680
  • Ntare III Rushatsi, c.1680–c.1709
  • Mwezi III Ndagushimiye, c.1709–c.1739
  • Mutaga III Senyamwiza Mutamo, c.1739–c.1767
  • Mwambutsa III Serushambo Butama, c.1767–c.1796 (also known as Mwambutsa III Mbariza)
  • Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba, c.1796–c.1850
  • Mwezi IV Gisabo, c.1850–21 August 1908
  • Mutaga IV Mbikije, 1908–30 November 1915
  • Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng, 16 December 1915–8 July 1966
  • Ntare V Ndizeye, 1 September–28 November 1966


Government

Constitution

Administrative Divisions

  • Burundi is a unitary state divided into fifteen provinces.
  • The name of the provincial capital is the same as that of the province.
Province
(postal code)
Communes Area Population Area Code Notes
Bubanza (BB) Bubanza
Gihanga
Musigati
Mpanda
Rugazi
1,089 km²
420 mi²
~250,000 22-
Bururi (BR) Bururi
Matana
Mugamba
Rutovu
Songa
Vyansda)
2,456 km²
948 mi²
~480,000 27-
Cankuzo (CN) Cankuzo
Cendajuru
Gisagara
Kigamba
Mishiha
1,965 km²
759 mi²
~190,000 26-
Cibitoke (CT) Buganda
Bukinanyana
Mabayi
Mugina
Murwi
Rugombo
1,636 km²
631 mi²
~400,000 28-
Gitega (GT) Bugendana
Bukirasazi
Buraza
Giheta
Gishubi
Gitega
Itaba
Makebuko
Mutaho
Nyanrusange
Ryansoro
1,979 km²
764 mi²
~650,000 48-
Karuzi (KR) Bugenyuzi
Buhiga
Gihogazi
Gitaramuka
Mutumba
Nyabikere
Shombo
1,467 km²
563 mi²
~390,000 57-
Kayanza (KY) Butaganzwa
Gahombo
Gatara
Kabarore
Kayanza
Matongo
Muhanga
Muruta
Rango
1,233 km²
476 mi²
~500,000 59-
Kirundo (KN) Bugabira
BusonivBwambarangwe
Gitobe
Kirundo
Ntega
Vumbi
1,703 km²
658 mi²
~570,000 56-
Makamba (MK) Kayogoro
Kibago
Mabanda
Makamba
Nyanza-Lac
Vugizo
~1,960 km²
~757 mi²
~280,000 65-
Muramvya (MR) Bukeye
Kiganda
Mbuye
Muramvya
Rutegama
36,000 km²
14,000 mi²
~810,000 67-
Muyinga (MY) Buhinyuza
Butihinda
Gashoho
Gasorwe
Giteranyi
Muyinga
Mwakiro
1,836 km²
709 mi²
~570,000 69-
Ngozi (NG) Buziga
Gashikanwa
Kiremba
Marangara
Mwumba
Ngozi
Nyamurenza
Ruhororo
Tangara
1,474 km²
569 mi²
~620,000 64-
Rutana (RT) Bukemba
Giharo
Gitanga
Mpinga-Kavoye
Musongati
Rutana
1,959 km²
757 mi²
~280,000 78-
Ruyigi (RY) Butaganzwa
Butezi
Bweru
Gisuru
Kinyinya
Nyabitsinda
Ruyigi
2,339 km²
903 mi²
~350,000 79-
Usumbura (BJ) Usumbura
Isale
Kabezi
Kanyosha
Mubimbi
Mugongomanga
Mukike
Mutambu
Mutimbuzi
Nyabiraba
87/1319 km²
33/509 mi²
~450,000/500,000 25-

Thus, the total area of the kingdom is 27,834 km² (10,747 mi²), slightly larger than the American state of Massachusetts.


Culture

Public Holidays

Date Name Notes
†January 1 Mary the Mother of God
1st Monday in February Victory Day Commemorates the defeat of China in the Great Oriental War
Good Friday
Easter Monday
†May 1 St. Joseph the Worker International Workers' Day
1st Monday in June Flag Day
†July 1 Independence Day
†July 17 Birthday of the Mwami
1st Monday of August Election Day in election years
1st Sunday of September Mothers' Day
1st Monday in October Fathers' Day Official date
2nd Monday November Day of Remembrance Commemorates those who fell in the struggle for independence
December 25 Christmas Day
†December 26 Day after Christmas

† If the holiday falls on Sunday, it is transferred to Monday.

Religion

Catholic Dioceses

  • The Province of Usumbura comprises
    • the (arch)dioceses of Usumbura, Muramvya, Bubanza, Cibitoke and Bururi
    • the civil provinces of Usumbura, Muramvya, Bubanza, Cibitoke and Bururi
  • The Archdiocese of Usumbura comprises the civil provinces of Usumbura and Muramvya.
Archdiocese of Usumbura
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from Promoted (Date) Elevated (Date)
Regina Mundi Apostolic Vicariate of Usumbura (6/11/1959) Apostolic Vicariates of Kitega and Ngozi Diocese of Usumbura (11/10/1959) Archdiocese of Usumbura (11/25/2006) by Pope John XXIIJ
  • The Diocese of Bubanza comprises the civil provinces of Bubanza and Cibitoke.
Diocese of Bubanza
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
Christ the King Diocese of Bubanza (6/7/1980) Apostolic Vicariates of Kitega and Ngozi
  • The Diocese of Bururi comprises the civil province of Bururi.
Diocese of Bururi
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
Christ the King Diocese of Bururi (6/6/1961) Archdiocese of Gitega
  • The Province of Gitega comprises
    • the (arch)dioceses of Gitega, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, and Ruyigi
    • the civil provinces of Gitega, Karuzi, Muyinga, Kirundo, Ngozi, Kayanza, Rutana, Makamba, Ruyigi and Cankuzo.
  • The Archdiocese of Gitega comprises the civil provinces of Gitega and Karuzi.
Archdiocese of Gitega
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from Renamed (Date) Divided into (Date) Renamed (Date) Elevated (Date)
Christ the King Apostolic Vicariate of Kivu (12/12/1912) Apostolic Vicariates of Unyanyeme and Southern Victoria Nyanza Apostolic Vicariate of Urundi and Kivu (1921) Apostolic Vicariates of Urundi and Rwanda (4/25/1922) Apostolic Vicariate of Kitega (7/14/1949) Archdiocese of Gitega (11/10/1959)
  • The Diocese of Muyinga comprises the civil provinces of Muyinga and Kirundo.
Diocese of Muyinga
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
Our Lady of Fatima Diocese of Muyinga (9/5/1968) Diocese of Ngozi
  • The Diocese of Ngozi comprises the civil provinces of Ngozi and Kayanza
Diocese of Ngozi
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
Our Lady of Fatima Apostolic Vicariate of Ngozi (7/14/1949) Apostolic Vicariate of Urundi
  • The Diocese of Rutana comprises the civil provinces of Rutana and Makamba.
Diocese of Rutana
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
St. Joseph Diocese of Rutana Dioceses of Burui and Ruyigi (1/17/2009)
  • The Diocese of Ruyigi comprises the civil provinces of Ruyigi and Cankuzo.
Diocese of Ruyigi
Cathedral Established as (Date) Separated from
St. Joseph Diocese of Ruyigi (1/17/2009) Archdiocese of Gitega and Diocese of Ngozi

Holidays of Obligation

Date Name Notes
January 1 Mary the Mother of God
Good Friday
August 15 the Assumption Patronal feast of the kingdom
November 1 All Saints' Day
December 25 Christmas


Infrastructure

Roads

  • Traffic moves to the left.
  • Since its independence in 1985 Burundi has not been able to do much about improving the roads. The major cities have paved roads and there is a paved road from Usumbura to Kitega, but none of the villages have paved roads.

Railroads

  • The only rail line in the kingdom is the one the links Usumbura to Kigoma in the Kingdom of Tanganyika.

Boat travel

  • High-speed bancas carry passengers between the port cities of Usumbura, Rumonge, and Nyanza-Lac. There are international trips from Usumbura to Baraka in the Kongo and Kigoma in the Kingdom of Tanganyika.
  • Passengers and cargo are moved mainly on the rivers.

Air travel

  • As with rail service airship service is limited. The only aerodrome is located at Usumbura. The only flight is a daily one to Kigoma in the Kingdom of Tanganyika.
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