|Conventional short name:|
|National motto: THE MOTTO!|
|Area:||5,823 square miles|
|Currency:||1 Reichsthaler=12 Kreuzer/Neugroschen=240 Pfennig|
|Established:||1806, DECREE OR REASON|
|Grand Duke:||Maximillian II|
|Organizations:||Holy Roman Empire|
The Zähringer family, margraves of Baden since 1112, owned in the 12th century counties in the Ortenau and Breisgau, strongholds of Baden, as well as Besigheim and Backnang. In the 13th century the Zähringer family increased their holdings, buying up Pforzheim, Durlach, Ettlingen and Alt-Eberstein. Through continued territorial additions and strict administration, Baden grew to a considerable state by the 15th century.
To produce a more peaceful country Baden was divided in 1535 into Baden, of the Catholic line, and Baden-Durlach, of the Evangelical line. Karl Friedrich later divided the duchy in 1771 and inaugurated countless reforms following what he termed Enlightened Despotism. In league with France and Wuerttemberg, he enlarged Baden from a measly 3,600 square kilometers and 175,000 inhabitants in 1803 to 15,000 square kilometers and nearly a million subjects in 1810.
Created as the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806, a new government and administrative organization was established and, in 1810, land reform was instituted after the prevailing Napoleonic French model. The constitution of 1818 and the elective legislature were models for early German constitutionalism.
Suffering much during the wars, Baden remained a split country, although there were motions to unite it with the Kingdom of Wuerttemberg. These motions were dropped in 1950.
Baden is renowned for the Black Forest on its western borders and is home to the oldest university in the Empire, the Heidelberg University, founded in 1386. It is also home to the oldest technical college.
|Anhalt | Baden | Bavaria | Bremen | Brunswick | Hamborg | Hannover | Hesse | Lippe | Luebeck | Luxemburg | Mecklenburg | Oldenburg | Premaria | Prussia | Rhineland-Palatinate | Saarland | Saxony | Schleswig-Holstein | Thuringia | Waldeck-Pyrmont | Westphalia | Wuerttemberg|