Anton I

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Anton

Anton foncu Hapšpurk, germ. Antonius von und zu Habsburg, *1773 - †1819


After father’s death, he came to throne being 22 years old, in 1795. His kingdom was only one third of what with his father started his reign. He was enthusiastic and laborious, he admired Napoleon and his political actions in Europe. As soon as he recognised the political power of Napoleon, Anton entered alliance with Napoleon in 1802. Because of chance to regain back territories lost to Napoleon's enemies, he actively working on Napoleon's side on the road to Congress of Vienna negotiations in 1815. He initiated negotiations about Prussia, which should give conquered Silesia and Lusatia back to Bohemia. He also actively opposed revisionists, silently supported by Austro-Dalmatian king Franz II., who claimed in contradiction to Pragmatic Sanction that Bohemia must be incorporated back into Austro-Dalmatia. Anton was also in favour of Republic of Both Nations, since Bohemia has had for the long time good relations with RTC. One of his courageous acts was diplomatic push to RTC nobility to rather consider the abolishment of liberum veto facing its further partitioning between Prussia and Russia. Whereas king Anton failed, Napoleon in 1821 succeeded.

During the Congress of Vienna, Napoleon suggested to Bohemia to receive back Silesia and Lusatia in exchange for releasing Hungary as an independent kingdom because of security reasons on the edge of Balkan. Undoubtedly, that was a good bargain. Hungary was a hornet's nest with Austrians and Ottomans behind back, so Anton, who believed in Napoleon's politics a lot, agreed. Hungary thus became independent, neither Austro-Dalmatia nor Bohemia acquired it, but was still on good terms with Bohemia.

As an answer on possible internal problems, he legalised in 1805 the new Royal Order (Ten Noj Kénikrajchsórtnunk, constitution), creating a federation (Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia) in Bohemian Kingdom. Part the the Royal Order was also new official language, Bohemian (Ta Pémiša Šprochna), which was the new unifying tool, as the German language was rejected; mostly not to have any connotations neither to Austria, nor Prussia. The system of curiae was introduced into political system. The allegiance to any of the 5 newly established states (aristocracy, clerics, clerks, magistrators, universities) decided about possibility to vote for fixed number of Ten Kénikrát (Royal Council) deputies reserved for each state. Each federative member elected proportional number of deputies (four members > one forth). Out of total 205 deputies, aristocracy elected 100 (4x25), clerics 20 (4x5), clerks 4 (4x1), magistrators 48 (4x12) and universities 32 (4x8), the last one of chancellor, nominated by king. The deputies elected from each federate member composed also federate councils, Ten Lantsrát. He also left the position of Archbishop of Prague to persons out of House of Habsburg, he only hold the title Patriarch of Common Bohemian Church. He had four sons – Józef, Henrik, Tánijel and Tómas.


Preceded by:
king Johannes II.
Bohemia flag.gif
Bohemian king
1795-1819
Succeeded by:
king Józef
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