American English

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Contents

Introduction

By in large, American languages (Brithenig, Scots and English) conform to their homelands' standard dialect forms. This especially in regards to the "official" registers, spelling conventions and generalities of grammar.

Of course, just like *here*, there are some minor differences among the Englishes of the world, and it should come as no surprise that the Englishes as spoken in the NAL-SLC shows some distinctive features from the Englishes spoken in England.

Morphology and Spelling Conventions

There are no significant morphological distinctions.

Unlike *here*, spellings in -re (centre), -our (colour), -ogue (catalogue), -ism (SNORisme) and -mme (programme) are retained in IB American English, thus conforming to the British mode of spelling.

The thorn (þ) is not seen quite as frequently as it is in England; it is replaced by the th digraph (probably due to Scottish influence).

Lexicon

It is in lexical matters where American English stands out as being different from British English. Some older words that have lost currency in Britain are retained in America; but most of the differences come from borrowings from Native languages, from Laurentien, from Sefaradi, from Castillian, from Louisiannaise and from mixing with Pennsylvaanisch, Scots and Brithenig.

A Pint does not refer to the same thing in the NAL as in England; in the NAL 1 Pint is the Octarius, worth 27 uc; meanwhile in England it is the Sextarius, worth 36 uc (quite a bit more).

Pronounciation

"Garage" and "Herb", &c are pronounced in a more French way.

Especially down south in Jacobia and Carolina, Latinisation is common; bacteria and media are plurals and certain nouns use plural endings from latin.
Words which have th in French/Latin were copied, agian down south in Carolina/Jacobia predominantly, as a th into English and are (sometimes) pronounced acordingly. Eg tea is thé, anteme is antheme. (In the former, to pronounce this with a th sound is considered very pretentious; in the latter, it is more common).

Especially in Alba Nuadh, G is often pronounced as a y sound, e.g. gate is pronounced as "yate" and regal the same way as "real". Sc is merged with the sound "Sh", e.g. "scirt" is pronounced [ʃirt], causing it to merge with "shirt". C and K are often pronounced as a /ç/ in some words, especially in Alba Nuadh (e.g. Kirk "church" is pronounced /kirç/).

The diphthongs [oʊ] and [eɪ] are generally pronounced as long [oː] and [eː] due to Scots influence. Also due to Scots influence, there exists a phenomenon where the diphthongs [aɪ] and [aʊ] are pronounced as [ɐɪ] and [ɐʊ], a phenomenon known as American raising.

The sound [l] is generally pronounced as "dark l" [ɫ] in all positions, except in the two Caribbean provinces of the Bahamas and Jamaica, where it is almost always pronounced clear.

R is pronounced in all positions, with the exceptions of the varieties of New England and the coastal areas of the Southern NAL. There is a regional phenomenon in eastern North America known as the Uvular R Sprachbund which affects Brithenig, French and Laurentian, Scots, and English. According to James Colwin, professor of English at CUNA (City University of New Amsterdam):

"It shall be recalled, the uvular trill (and perhaps by now the uvular fricative) is an eastern North American Sprachbund phenomenon, affecting English, Brithenig, Lawrencian French, and perhaps the archaic Swedish of New Sweden. It does not appear to have spread to North American Spanish or to Montreiano, however, nor to the Judeo-Spanish of Mueva Sefarad.

The precise borders of the Sprachbund are not entirely clear, either. It has been postulated by John Swain of University of Chicago that the Sprachbund's western borders run in a similar fashion as Louisianne's eastern border. That would mean that the French spoken in Les Plains and perhaps even in Louisianne's eastern regions would have the uvular R, while Louisianne itself keeps its perhaps Spanish or Native influenced rolled R." From a lecture delivered at CUNA on 16 August, 2006.

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